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Affirmative Action - federal law The Constitution...

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Affirmative Action (1970s–Present) Affirmative action programs try to rectify past discrimination by giving minorities and women special consideration when employees are hired and students are admitted into universities. Proponents argue that affirmative action rights past wrongs and helps erase the effects of racism and other bias. Critics argue that affirmative action unfairly discriminates against whites, a phenomenon known as reverse discrimination. The Bakke Case In 1978, the Supreme Court ruled in its first affirmative action case, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke. The Court upheld affirmative action but argued that although race could be a factor in admissions decisions, it could not be the only factor. Recent Crusades for Equal Rights The late twentieth century and early twenty-first century witnessed many groups agitating for equal rights, including women, seniors, the disabled, and gays and lesbians. Women Like African Americans, women have had to struggle to win equal protection under
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Unformatted text preview: federal law. The Constitution explicitly gives men power and rights that were not given to women, including the right to vote. The First Women’s Movement (1840s–1920s) In 1848, a group of women met in Seneca Falls, New York, to organize the suffrage movement. The Seneca Falls activists were disappointed when the Fifteenth Amendment extended the right to vote to black men, but not women. Women did not win the right to vote until the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920. The Second Women’s Movement (1960s) The civil rights movement of the 1950s galvanized many women to create their own movement for civil rights. Feminism, the movement that seeks social, political, and legal equality for women, gained strength. In 1966, several feminists formed the National Organization for Women (NOW) to promote their goals, including the Equal Rights Amendment. ERA...
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