Socialism American presidents since the Cold War have invoked the Monroe Doctrine to prevent the spread of communism and socialism in the Western Hemisphere. The most notorious example occurred in the early 1960s when the Central Intelligence Agency tried to depose and assassinate Cuban communist dictator Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Castro survived and retaliated by inviting the Soviet Union to install a number of nuclear missiles in Cuba to threaten the United States during the Cuban Missile Crisis. More recently, relations between the United States and Venezuela soured when Venezuela’s socialist president Hugo Chavez denounced the United States as an imperialist world power. Foreign Policymakers Many people and groups shape American foreign policy, including the following: • The president • Cabinet departments • Intelligence agencies • Congress and the courts • State and local governments • The military-industrial complex The President The president is the primary architect of American foreign policy. Article II of the U.S.
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