The Jim Crow Laws and Supreme Court Decisions (1880s–1900s) After the federal troops withdrew from the South at the end of Reconstruction in 1877, white southerners quickly took over state governments and openly flouted the recent laws designed to protect the rights of former slaves. Several state governments in the South went so far as to legalize discrimination of blacks; these laws are known as the Jim Crow laws. Even though the Fifteenth Amendment gave all men the right to vote, the southern states employed a variety of tactics to prevent blacks from voting, including the following: • Whites-only primaries: Nonwhites were barred from primaries because Democrats argued that political parties were private organizations and thus not subject to antidiscrimination laws. • Literacy tests: Blacks were required to pass complex tests that were graded by white election officials in order to vote. • Poll taxes:
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