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Psych 105 NOTES - PSYCH 105 NOTES Cognitive and Biological...

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PSYCH 105 NOTES 1/15/09 Cognitive and Biological Perspectives (1950’s) Cognitive perspective: o Renewed interest in consciousness o Decision making, reasoning, problem solving Biological Perspective: o Focus on bodily structures, biochemical processes o Human and animal physiology and behavior o Basis for psychopharmacology Conducting Research Chapter 2 Why do research? o Answer questions o Uncover “laws” governing human behavior o Make sense of common sense and logic Birds of feather flock together Opposites attract The Scientific Process o Formulate a hypothesis Chance observation? Intuitive Idea? Hypothesis : a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables If-Then statement Variable: measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed Testable? Variables must be clearly defined to examine the relationship between the two Operational Definition: procedures used to measure and observe variables How will you test your hypothesis o Select a method, design the study Two types of studies Experiments Descriptive or correlational research Experiment : the investigator manipulates a variable (IV) under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable (DV) as a result Independent Variable : event or condition manipulated by experimenter Dependent Variable : variable affected by the manipulation of (IV) o Collect the data o Analyze the data, draw conclusions o Report the findings 1/20/09 Sign up on psychology web site and choose experiment Experiments
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Experimental Group: the conditions of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment (one version of the independent variable) Control Group: the condition that contrasts with the experimental conditions and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment o Baseline o Only one Extraneous Variable: any variable, other than the independent variable that may influence the dependent variable o Can complicate or negate independent variable – dependent variable relationship Decrease influence of extraneous variables? o Hold constant as many variables and conditions as possible Random Assignment: assign participants to conditions by chance o Minimizes preexisting differences Advantages o Can conclude cause and effect relationships between variables Disadvantages o Artificial o Not always possible Ethics Difficulty If no experiment can be done Descriptive/correlational Research o Naturalistic Observation: observing behavior in naturally occurring situations Case Study o An observational technique in which one person is studied in depth in hopes of revealing universal principals Survey o a measure self reported attitudes or behaviors 1/25/09 The Biological Perspective behavior is influenced by our bodies especially our brains The Neuron
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