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Chapter 19 Templates

Chapter 19 Templates - Chapter19 AldehydesandKetones:...

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Chapter 19: Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions General Structures: Aldehydes Ketones Characterized by the presence of a carbonyl functional group Carefully read over the carbonyl compound preview found on pages 686­694 (Mandatory) Title: Page %d of %d
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Aldehydes: Nomenclature Replace the ­e ending of the corresponding alkane name with ­al Ex. Methane becomes Methanal The parent chain must contain the ­CHO group and the carbonyl's carbon atom is labeled as carbon 1 For more complex aldehyde compounds (­CHO group attached to a ring), the suffix ­carbaldehyde should be used Examples: Title: Page %d of %d
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Aldehyde Common Names Title: Page %d of %d
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Ketones: Nomenclature Replace the ­e ending of the corresponding alkane name with ­one Ex. Hexane becomes hexanone The parent chain must contain the carbonyl group and the carbonyl's carbon atom is given the lowest number possible on the chain When the R­C=O group is used as a substituent, it is referred to as an acyl group and the ending ­yl is attached to its root carboxylic acid name When other groups are present and the carbonyl group is considered a substituent on a parent chain, the prefix oxo­ is used to identify the ketones position Title: Page %d of %d
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Aldehyde and Ketone Preparation Aldehyde Synthesis: (Review) Oxidation of 1 oalcohols Oxidative cleavage of alkenes Carboxylic acid derivatives can be partially reduced to form aldehydes Title: Page %d of %d
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