HIST final 1 - Alger Hiss Communist Richard Nixon was...

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Alger Hiss- Communist. Richard Nixon was suspicious of him and dug up dirt on him with the help of Whittaker Chambers. Chambers produced microfilms of documents (Pumpkin Papers- because Hiss hid documents in a pumpkin patch). Accused in 1948 of having been a spy in the 1930s for the Soviet Union and later convicted of perjury for testifying falsely before a congressional committee. Whittaker Chambers ratted him out. Convicted on January 30, 1950. Federal Highway Act of 1956- largest public works project in American history; authorized $25 billion for a ten year project that built over 40,000 miles of interstate highways. Was funded through a highway “trust fund”, whose revenues would come from new taxes on the purchase of fuel, automobiles, trucks, and tires. “The Lonely Crowd” – argued that Americans were losing their individualism, particularly the men. He said that men were “other directed” – as opposed to being inner-directed who judged himself on the basis of his own values and the esteem of his family- because of the suburb. The “other directed” man was more concerned with winning the approval of the larger organization or community. Written by David Riesman Brown vs. Board- Brown decision actually occurred after a combination of 5 separate court cases. All 5 court cases started in local communities, and each was separate from the rest. First case dealt with a local school bus. Community would not pay for the black buses’ (which the black people bought) gas. In 2 nd trial in 1955, the Supreme court ruled that desegregation must end with all- deliberate speed. KKK swelled to numbers that hadn’t been seen since the 1920’s. Southern Manifesto- a document that 101 southern Congressmen signed that said that Brown was the wrong decision. They said that the courts could not tell the schools how to run their schools. The Congressman said that this was an act of “Legislation from the bench”. The southern Manifesto upheld segregation. Stokely Carmichael- denounced the 1965 Voting Rights Bill as the “white’s man bill”. He took over the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and said that whites should only take a peripheral role and let blacks really be a part. Finished James Meredith march after he was shot. Arrested. When he came out, he declared he had enough and gave a fiery speech where he shouted five times “We Want Black Power!” Missile Gap - something JKF made up. Said there was a “missile gap” between Russia and America. Sputnik had been launched using advanced rocketry, and the USSR did have better rocket technology. However, the U.S. had more nuclear warheads than did Russia. He relied on this idea to push for an increase in nuclear armaments. By 1963, Kennedy had installed a massive $50 billion military budget, which greatly expanded the federal budget.
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