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Chapter 9 Problems - Name Hellums Jessica Problems and...

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Name: Hellums, Jessica UTEID: JSH575 Problems and Questions for Chapter 9 Material C4: Nucleotides are made up of three basic building blocks: a phosphate group, a pentose sugar and a nitrogenous base. The bases are variable from nucleotide to nucleotide. The sugar is either a ribose or deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogen base can be either a purine or pyrimidine. Purine bases have two rings and are adenine and guanine. Pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine, and uracil and only have one ring. DNA uses the deoxyribose sugar and RNA nucleotides use the ribose sugar. Thymine is not found in RNA. RNA uses Uracil in place of thymine. Also, phosphate groups are covalently attached to the sugar. Deoxyribose and ribose sugar rings are numbered clockwise. The first carbon numbered is the one next to the oxygen with the base attached to it. The phosphate groups connect to the sugar at the 5’ carbon. The 3’ carbon has an –OH group and is the location for addition of new nucleotides. The phosphate group of the new nucleotide connects here through a phosphodiester bond. C12: The DNA backbone is made up of alternating sugars and phosphates and makes up the outer edge of the DNA strands.
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