啄木鸟满分名师é

啄木鸟满分名师é

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Unformatted text preview: SAT 语法讲义 啄木鸟教育铁扇公主 第一章 SAT 语法简介……………………………….3 第二章 ISE 题型分类 1 代词……………………………………….4 2 动词………………………………………..13 3 平行结构…………………………………..19 4 形容词副词……………………………….23 5 固定搭配………………………………….25 第三章 IS 题型分类 1 简洁原则………………………………….26 2 句子结构…………………………………..29 3 代词 …………………………………..31 4 动词……….……………………………….34 5 平行结构………………………………….37 6 非谓语动词……………………………….42 SAT 语法讲义第 1 页 铁扇公主 SAT 语法串讲视频录像(配合本讲义) : http://www.manfen.net/thread-19128-1-1.html 铁扇公主新浪微博:http://weibo.com/2073028907 更多猴哥、八戒、二郎神、铁扇公主 SAT 托福资料下载及更新:www.manfen.net 满分网网址:www.manfen.net 啄木鸟教育官方网址:www.zmnedu.com 猴哥人人网公共主页:http://page.renren.com/600924309 猴哥新浪微博:http://weibo.com/hougehouge 二郎神新浪微博:http://weibo.com/astrophil 八戒新浪微博:http://weibo.com/rickyhanzhang 沙僧微博:http://weibo.com/sesquipedaliophobia 啄木鸟满分名师资料大全: 资料下载: 猴哥 SAT 资料大礼包(包含猴哥 SAT8000) http://ishare.iask.sina.com.cn/f/9946282.html : 猴哥托福词频 9000 蓝宝书电子版:http://www.manfen.net/thread-19123-1-1.html 猴哥、 二郎神、 铁扇公主 SAT 阅读长难句 108 句: http://www.manfen.net/thread-19037-1-1.html 铁扇公主 SAT 语法讲义:http://www.manfen.net/thread-19128-1-1.html 讲座视频录像: 猴哥 SAT、托福备考总体规划讲座录像:http://www.manfen.net/thread-13349-1-1.html 猴哥背单词法课程录像:http://www.manfen.net/thread-5913-1-1.html 铁扇公主语法串讲录像:http://www.manfen.net/thread-19128-1-1.html 二郎神 SAT 阅读:http://www.manfen.net/thread-10351-1-1.html 八戒托福:http://www.manfen.net/thread-13350-1-1.html 陈起永老师留学申请讲座录像:http://www.manfen.net/thread-18346-1-1.html SAT 语法讲义第 2 页 第一章 SAT 语法部分简介 语法部分属于 SAT reasoning test 中的写作(writing)板块,整个语法部分包括三 种题型:ISE(Identifying sentence errors,即挑错题)18小题、 IS(Improving sentences,即句子改进题)25 小题、 IP(Improving paragraphs,即段落改进题)6 小题,所有题目均为五选一。以上三 种题型共49 道小题,在真题中占到两个Section(不包括加试Section),其中一 个Section 25分钟35 题(11IS+18IE+6IP),另一个Section 10分钟14个IS 题。 从题目的分布我们可以看出对于广大中国考生来说,SAT 语法部分的难度主要 在于: 一、题型新颖独特。SAT 语法题型很难在国内外其他考试中找到对应,因此学生 平时根本没有接触过类似题型,可是学生又总是用做传统的语法题的思维去做 SAT 的语法,可想而知其结果必然很惨烈。 SAT语法之所以被划分在Writing Skills当中,是因为它实际是考查考生对英语的 标准书面语 (即Standard Written English) 的掌握程度, 并非琐碎复杂的语法知识, SAT的语法具有特殊性,它追求的是‘好的语法’,是恰当的,最符合英语国家文 化传统与语言习惯的用法。表现在做题方面,它要选择的并不是错或对的,而是 最合适的。SAT的语法规则,也就是像OG当中所阐述的那样,是一种“the rules of good written English”,具有准确,清晰,简洁的特点,杜绝口语化、模糊和冗余 的表达。 SAT语法三种题型所考查的侧重点各不相同,从OG和真题上对各部分考试目的 和内容的解析中我们可以得出这一点。如在Identifying Sentences Errors(简称ISE) 中,对考生的要求是“ The ability to recognize grammar and usage errors”,强调语 法和固定用法的使用是否正确; Improving Sentences(简称IS)对考生的要求则变 而 成了“the ability to recognize and write clear, effective and accurate sentences”,从语 法知识转移到了清晰,准确,简洁的表达方式。这种题型对中国学生而言要比句 子挑错题更难适应,由于在中国的英语教育中,对于“简洁”这一知识点的训练几 乎是空白,而这恰恰又是修改句子的重要解题思路; Improving paragraphs(简 称IP)与前两种题型的差别较大,要求考生 “to understand how the sentences and the paragraphs work together.”,既然是考查句子和段落之间如何作用,那么除了修 改句子结构,合并句子的题目外,还会有一部分题是考查句子应该在段落的什么 位置比较合适。 二、时间紧迫。对于绝大多数中国学生来说,语法部分的时间是非常紧迫的,尤 其是25 分钟的Section,很多人做不完题目。如果连题目都做不完,那么语法部 分要答对44 题以上的目标就希望渺茫了。 但是,诸位考生也不要因此而灰心丧气。首先,SAT 语法部分的难度较之阅读 SAT 语法讲义第 3 页 部分还是小了许多。而且通过对真题的深入研究,我们不难发现,语法部分考题 的规律性极强、核心考点重复率高,而且所涉及的语法知识点比中国高考所涉及 的语法知识点浅显。 因此,如果经过系统、合理的复习,语法部分完全有可能在短期内迅速提高,从 抓分角度来说对考生相对重要,考生一旦突破了语法题的瓶颈,那么SAT1 总分 突破2000 分甚至2100 分就大有希望了,而2000 分对于申请美国高校的中国高 中生来说是很有竞争力的分数。 SAT语法考试的三大重点内容 ⑴.语法规则 长考的语法规则包括:平行结构、代词、动词、连词、形容词、副词。 ⑵.词的使用 标准书面用法、简洁的习惯搭配、词的位置准确、避免词与词的语义重复 ⑶.逻辑表达 逻辑表达的简洁性、逻辑意思的合理性和单一性。 关于 SAT 语法的解题技巧: 1. 抓住明显错误进行排除, 首先大家需要寻找划线部分是否有明显的语法错误或逻辑错误, 有的话马上排除,再纵向寻找答案,把选项中没有改正这些错误的都给排除掉。 2.利用常考考点作为切入点,有时如果把一些常考考点给记住的话,就可以大大提高解题 的速度。 3.利用对称性解题,与汉语一样, 英语在行文上也讲究对称性, 而这一点在比较结构和平行结 构中非常常见,即要求尽可能在语法功能上和形式结构上表达一致。 4.对比选项,从选项中寻找答案,有时比较完选项后,很难从已给信息中找出答案,这时我 们可以比较剩下的选项,由选项中的不同来寻找答案 语法部分时间安排:修改句子(8 分钟)+ 挑错题(9 分钟)+ 修改文章(6 分钟)+ 涂 卡,检查(2 分钟) SAT 语法讲义第 4 页 ISE 做题的步骤: 句子结构——词性——考点——选答案——修改 1、通读句子。读题时分析句子结构,找出句子的主干,即主语中心语,谓语, 和宾语中心语。 2、遇到划线的部分先分类(名词、动词、形容词……) 3 读题时联系常考语法点,思考划线部分的语法知识是否正确 4、无论如何也请把所有选项看完,然后再选择答案。 5、不要害怕选 E(No error),因为每套题目都会有一定数目的 E 选项答案, 选 E 是很正常的,不要明明没有错都还要挑毛病。 做完一套语法题以后, 不要只是对答案就完了, 同时要把每道题的错误改正过来, 每道题目都要清楚自己为什么错,切实弄懂每道题的考点,如果发现自己对该考 点的掌握不够准确,应马上翻看课堂笔记或语法书相关章节进行查漏补缺。一套 题下来, 整个过程最多耗时一个小时, 只有这样才能把模拟题的价值发挥到极致。 SAT 语法讲义第 5 页 ISE 近 5 年主要考点分布 考点 分点 10.10 10.5 10.1 09.10 09.5 主谓 3(12, 3(18, 3(22, 3(14,17, 2(26, 一致 25,29) 21,29) 27,29) 19) 28) 2(22,23) 2 时态 0 (13,14 08.10 08.5 1(23) 1(20) 16) 2(15,20) 08.1 1(17) 3 2(15, 18) 1(13) 2(12, ) 动词 09.1 1(14) (12,15 0 ,18) 虚拟 语气 1(18) 0 0 1(13) 0 0 0 0 1(18) 0 0 1(28) 0 0 0 0 0 0 3(18, 3 2 3 2(172 (1826 (22,25 (20,22,2 7) 21,28) ,29) ) 4) Had don e 数量 的一 致 2 3(19, (17,22 1(26) 23,26) 1(22) ) 人称 的一 代词 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1(26) 0 1(26) 0 0 1(26) 0 0 1(22) 0 0 1(15) 1(23) 0 0 0 0 1(12) 0 1(16) 1(14) 1(14) 0 1(16 0 0 0 1(29) 0 1(29) 1(27) 1(28 0 1(22 1(15) 1(12,) 致 格的 一致 关系 0 代词 1(15) 指代 不明 平行 平行结 构 0 2 结构 (23,21 ) 平行 比较 1(24) 结构 形容 形容词 副词 词/ 副词 混用 2 (14,28 2(17, 2(13, 2(13, 1(24) 19 ) SAT 语法讲义第 6 页 20) 19) 0 比较 级/ 最高 2 0 1(17) 1(25) 0 (19,25 0 级混 0 1(17) 0 ) 用 形容 词的 0 0 0 1(28) 1(26) 错用 名词的 单复数 2(27, 2(20, 1(24) 19) 固定搭 3(20, 1(15) 3(12, 3(13, 20,27) 24, ) 28 2(12, 1(16) 配 1 22) 1(17) ( 2(24,27) 24) 25,28) 18) 0 2(15, 1(24 句子结 1(28) (12,13, 1(12) (14,29 构 14,16 6 No 2(16, error 1(20) 3 (17,19 27) ,,21) 3(16, 4(16,1 2(21,27 20,23 1(26) ) ISE 知识点综述: 一. 代词(pronoun error) ☆单复数不一致 人称不一致 代词考点 ☆ 主格宾格错用 关系代词,关系副词错用 指代不清 SAT 语法讲义第 7 页 3,25,27,29 9,21,25 23) ) (19,21,2 ) 3(18,21, ) 纵观 SAT 的语法考试,我们发现代词在考试中占有举足轻重的地位,很多的题 目都与之相关。所以以后考试中出现代词划线,一定要万分注意。 在学习本课之前,我们要弄清楚 SAT 考试的特点:SAT 考试是考察应试者对于 英语标准书面语(也就是我们常说的 Standard Written English)的掌握,所以我 们一定要做到标准化。 代词在语法中的作用: 代词---(Pro-noun) ,所以我们代词是用来指代一个名词(noun)。 考点聚焦: 1. 是代词与其先行项要保持“数”的一致 。即前面是单数名词则后面的代词也应该单数形 式而不是复数形式,前面的复数名词后面的代词也应为复数形式。 例题分析 1 Just as (A) some teenagers adore video games, so others (B) condemn it (C) as an utter (D) waste time. No error (E) [分析]: 答案为 C condemn 的宾语应该指的 video games 所以应该改为 them . 2 Even though (A) only parts of clay vessels may be (B) recovered, these pottery shards are invaluable to (C) the archaeologist because it is (D) virtually indestructible. No error (E) 分析; 此题的正确答案为 D 选项,应将其改为“they are”用来指代前面的“shards” 。 3 The quality of multivitamin tablets is determined (A) by how long (B) its (C) potency can be protected (D) by the manufacturer’s coating material. No error(E) 分析; 此题的正确答案为 C 选项,将其改为 their 是前面的 tablets 的所有格形式。 4. The starling is such a (A) pest in rural areas that it has become (B) necessary to find ways (C) of controlling the growth of their (D) population. No error (E) SAT 语法讲义第 8 页 分析: 答案为 D,their 改为 its,指代的是 The starling。 2.代词与其先行项要保持“人称”的一致是指代词的人称形式由其先行项的人称形式决定, 同我同你同他。 要特别注意 one/ones 划线时不可随意指代,one 或者 ones 在指代的时候只适用于第三人称 即 one 与第三人称 he/she 对应;在复数的情况下 ones 和 they 进行对应,这一切与 we/you 无关。 例如: We/You don’t have so‐called freedom, because at times what we/you do depends on other people. 译文:我们/你们并没有所谓的自由,因为有些时候我们/你们的所作所为还取决于别人。 我们在例句中可以看出来在第一人称或者第二人称的时候, 前后必须是相互呼应的, 所以如 果将句子改成下面的情况就不对了: We/You don’t have so‐called freedom, because at times what ones do dependb on other people. 再来看一个句子:When one is exhausted, he/she is tired of answering others’ questions. 译文:但一个人极度疲惫的失守,他/她会疲于回答别人的问题。 这句话中,one 与第三人称 he/she 对应;在复数的情况下 ones 和 they 进行对应, 这一切与 we/you 无关 例题分析 1.For people in (A) many ancient societies, work was only a means of (B) survival rather than (C) a way to improve your (D) standard of living. No error (E) 分析:答案为 D ,应该改为 their 因为指代的是 people 所以要用第三人称而不 是第二人称。 2. To become (A)a world figure‐skating champion like Kristi Yamaguchi, one must be (B) so dedicated that you (C)will practice (D)six hours a day. No error.(E) 分析: 答 案为 C 前 面有个很明显的词 one, 所以不能用 you 来指代而是用第三人称 he/she. 3 Although (A) one likes to believe (B) that your own (C) children are beautiful, intelligent, and well behaved, what one believes is not always the case (D). No error(E) 分析: 此题的正确答案为 C 选项,句子中前面有一个代词“one” 所以划线部分应该 , SAT 语法讲义第 9 页 改为第三人称 his/her. 3,代词的“格”是指代词的主格、宾格和所有格。代词用什么“格”要看代词在句中做什么 成分,代词在句中做什么成分又要看它指代的先行项在句中是什么成分,所以,代词的先 行项是主语,那么代词就用主格形式;先行项是宾语,代词就用宾格形式;先行项是表所 有的,那么代词用所有格形式。 宾格形式一般在动词之后充当句子的宾语,常见的有: a. 动宾结构‐‐‐‐即及物动词后加宾语,此时代词用宾格形式 b. 介宾结构‐‐‐‐介词后加宾语,代词用宾格形式 单数 复数 I II III I II 主格 you he she it we you I 宾格 me you him her it us you III they them 形容词性物主代词 数 单数 复数 第一人称 my our 第二人称 your your 第三人称 his, her, its their 人称 名词性物主代词 数 单数 复数 第一人称 mine ours 第二人称 yours yours 第三人称 his, her, its theirs 人称 例题分析: 例: 1. My colleague and myself (A) received an award for (B) our paper on the accuracy with which (C) a polygraph measures (D) physiological processes. No error(E) 分析: 答案为 A,应该改为 I 因为做的主语。 2. The report Alexander is discussing (A), a report prepared jointly by he (B) and the committee, does not take into account (C) the socioeconomic status of those SAT 语法讲义第 10 页 interviewed (D). No error (E) 分析: 答为 B.做 by 的宾语,应该为 him 3. Apparently impressed with (A) our plans, the foundation awarded Carlos and I (B) a grant to establish (C) a network of community centers throughout (D) the city. No error (E) 分析: 答案为 B,把 I 改为 me,做 award 的宾语 4. For we (A) students, concern about impending (B) tuition hikes was even more acute than (C) apprehension about (D) final exams. No error (E) 分析: 答案为 A, for 为介词所以应该用宾格形式 us 4 指代不明确 a. 代词一定要清晰地去表示它所指代的对象,否则就是错的。 例如:Tom and Phillip went on their annual hiking trip, even though he was suffering from a sprained ankle. 这里的 he 就是指代不明,不知道指的是 Tom 还是 Phillip。 例题分析: 1. The office manager and her coworker, Ms. Andrews, received (A) equal pay for the company until (B) she (C) got a raise for helping (D) to increase productivity. No error (E) 分析: 答案为 C,she 可以指代 The office manager 和 her coworker 所以指代不明 b. “This that these those”不能指代句子和动词 this 不能单独充当主语和宾语,一定要有其他的名词和它在一起。所以 SAT 语法考试中 出现单独的“This”充当句子的主语或者宾语部分指代了前面的句子或者动词, 那就是错误的。 SAT 语法讲义第 11 页 例句:Thomas repeated his perspective that (A) the student, if given (B) sufficient time for (C) preparation, would finish this (D). No error (E) C 我们清楚代词的英文写法是 pronoun,即代词要指代的对象是一个 noun,所以 在 SAT 考试中,代词指代的如果是一个动词(verb)或者一个句子(sentence) , 那么肯定是不正确的。常考的 it , which 就是这样。 Which 在 SAT 中是不能指代前面一句话的,这是 SAT 特殊的地方,和我们中国语法很不 一样。 It 只能指代一个单数名词,如果是一个动词(verb)或者一个句子(sentence) ,那么肯 定是不正确的. 但是 it 是可以做形式主语和形式宾语。 It seems that Joy has left his office. D 不能有空指代。 SAT 认为代词的所指代的对象必须是在句子中出现过的名词, 不能让读 者去猜这个代词的指代对象。 例如 They think Lily is a good student. 这句的 they 就是空指代, 因为前文没有出现过复数名词, they 无从指代。 所以要把 they 改 为 people 5 关系代词 ①关系代词的错用: who /which 1. Jackie McLean's recordings have shown that he is one of the few jazz musicians (A) who(B) style of playing has kept (C)pace with the evolution of modern jazz. (D). No error(E) 2.Hurricanes are severe cyclones (A) with winds over seventy-five miles(B) who (C)originate (D)over tropical ocean waters. No error(E) an hour 3. According to the store manager, the most important workers were those which A) had ( contributed(B) to the reputation of the store rather than (C)those with the most impressive (D)sales figures. No error (E) 4 People which (A)need immediate reeducation for employment are (B)impatient with(C) the prolonged debate over (D)funding for the new national program. No error(E) ②关系代词和关系副词的区分 SAT 语法讲义第 12 页 用关系代词还是用关系副词, 主要是看关系词在从句当中作什么成分 关系代词可作主语、宾语、表语;关系副词可作状语。 1. In those cities(A) in which (B)public transportation is adequate, fewer traffic problems occur and pedestrians are rarely(C) involved in (D)accidents. No error (E) 二 动词(主谓一致,时态) ☆主谓一致 ☆时态 动词考点 虚拟语气 过去式、过去分词拼写 句子残缺 a 主谓一致 主 语和谓语应在数上保持它们一致性,即复数主语必须用复数谓语;同 样,单数主语必须用单数谓语。但是 SAT 的 考试,会把题出的很难,尤其 是在主语和谓语之间用很长的干扰信息分隔开,从而让学生找不到真正的 谓语和主语。 考点聚焦: 1 单 复数混用 这 种题型相对来说是比较简单并且显而易见的, 但是同学们做题的时候 一定要十分细心。 例 句 1: Few issues is (A) a s likely (B) t o provoke widespread interest as SAT 语法讲义第 13 页 those (C) i nvolving possible danger to (D) t he health or safety of children. No error (E) 此 题的正确答案为 A选项,应该将其改为 are 。只要能够判断出句子开头的 主语是 issues 这个复数名词就很简单了。 2 就前原则 ( 1)名词 1 + 介词 + 名 词 2 在 SAT 考试中出现此种情况,谓语动词的单复数与名词 1 有关,与名词 2 无关 1 . The bright (A) f iberglass sculptures of Luis Jimenez has received (B) c ritical acclaim not only (C) i n his home state, New Mexico, but also in (D) N ew York. No error (E) . 分 析: 此 题的正确答案是 B选项,将其改为 have 。句子中主语是 sculptures ,是一 个复数主语,所以谓语部分应该用复数形式。 2. The professor’s insisitence on high standards and rigorous exams are (A)not,despite what students think,part of (B)a plan to withhold (C)high grades from them(D). No error (E) . 分析: 答案为 A,主语为 insisitence,所以谓语应该改为 is。 (2)名词(主语)+插入语+谓语 此种题型在 SAT 语法考试中出现的频率十分的高 T he record left by fossils, the ancient remains of plants and animals, provide (A) s cientists with (B) t heir primary source of (C) i nformation about (D) p rehistoric life. No error (E) 分 析: 此 题的争取答案为 A选项。 句子中的插入语是 , the ancient remains of plants and animals, 所以可以忽略不计。这句话的主语是 the record,所以谓语部 分用 provide 肯定是错误的,应该将它改为 provides 。 ( 3) 名词 +doing\ done( 分词作后置定语 ) SAT 语法讲义第 14 页 Flints found in (A) the region extending from the Nile Valley to (B) the highlands of eastern Iraq attests to (C) the presence of people there as long ago as (D) one hundred thousand years. No error (E). 分析: 答案为 C ,found in the region extending from the Nile Valley to the highlands of eastern Iraq 做的后置定语来修饰 Flints,Flints 是主语所以谓语应该是 attest。 (4) A with B . A including B . A as well as B . A toghter with B . A along with B . A besides B . A except B. 谓语动词和 A 保持一致。 3 . 倒装句的主谓一致 常考的一般有 2 中形式 :地点状语+动词+主语 ; 头重脚轻。 1 . Also supported (A) b y the commission was (B) t he proposed health clinics and the proposed center (C) t o distribute information on j ob-training (D) o pportunities. No error (E) 分 析: 此 题的正确答案为 B选项,将 was 改成 were 。这道题目难度较大,是典型的 倒 装与主谓一致的搭配,正常语序应为:the proposed health clinics and the proposed center were also supported by the commission… ,是一个有 and 连接的复数主语。 2. In the foothills of that large mountain range is (A) the sources of a river whose course (B) was not fully mapped (C) until (D) this century. No error (E). 分析: 此题的正确答案为 A 选项 , 这道题也是倒装句,the sources of a river 是主语, 所以谓语应该为 are 而不是 is 。 3. Air pollution caused by industrial fumes has been studied (A) for years, but (B) only recently has (C) the harmful effects of noise pollution become (D) known. No error (E). 分析: 此题的正确答案为 C 选项,有个很明显的倒装标志词 only ,后半句的主语 SAT 语法讲义第 15 页 是 the harmful effects of noise pollution 所以应该把 has 改为 have. 4. 谓语动词单复数的固定用法 (1) a n umber of +名词 表示一些;其后谓语动词用复数, t he n umber of +名词 表示什么东西的数量;这个短语的主语中心词是 “the number ” ,其后的动词应该用单数; 于此类似的有还有 a variety of 和 the variety of ( 2 )量词:a collection \set \line\list\group of +名词 谓语的单复数与量词保持 一致 例句:The number of awards given this year (A) t o biochemists accentuate (B) t he significant gains (C) b eing made in (D) t he study of the chemistry of living organisms. No error (E) ( OG P660 26) 此 题的正确答 G 案是 B 选项, 应改为: accentuates 。 主句主语为the number of , 所以谓语动词用单数。 (3)each of +Ns+谓语单数 Ns+each+谓语复数 例如:They each put forward a proposal. 如果 each 做主语,谓语动词一般应当用作单数,如: Each of them thinks differet thoughts。 (4)以 s 为结尾表示单数的单词 ①以-s 结尾的疾病名称,如: arthritis(关节炎),bronchitis (支气管炎) ,diabetes (糖尿病),mumps(腮腺炎),phlebitis(静脉炎),rickets(软骨病), measles(麻疹) ②以-ics 结尾的学科名称作主语时,如 physics,mathematics,mechanics, optics, acoustics, politics statistics, economics, linguistics, athletics ③以-s 结尾:customs,molasses,news,summons,walrus,species,means ( 5 )就近一致的主谓关系: either ..or .., neither… nor.., not only ..but also SAT 语法讲义第 16 页 b 时态 时态的考察在任何形式的英语考试中都是重点,SAT 语法考试也不例外,并且 我们发现时态部分向来是中国考生极易犯错的地方, SAT 语法考试侧重点是主句 和从句的时态统一。 时态 一般 进行 完成 完成进行 现在时 Does; do Am/is/are+doing Has/have+done Has/have+been doing 过去时 Did Was/were+doing Had done Had been doing 将来时 Shall/will+do Shall/will be +doing Shall/will have + done Shall/will+have been doing 过去将 Should/would/+do Would/should+be Should/would + have Would/should + have been doing done doing 来时 考 点聚焦: (1) 现在类时态和过去类时态混用 ,即在未划线部分会有一个动词时态,在划线 部分也会有一个动词时态,但是往往划线部分和未划线部分时态存在冲突。 比如,未划线部分是现在的时态,而划线部分是过去的时态。 1 Jerome often referred to (A) art history textbook while he (B) was sculpting; whenever he learned a new method in art class , he seeks out (C) the work of sculptors who had used it (D) in the past. No error (E) 分析:答案为 C.应该改为 sought out .句子的时态过去时,所以 C 不能是现在的 时态 应该改为过去时。 (2)由 Since, After 连接的主句从句的时态考察 SAT 中有一个经典的时态考题 , 即从句是一个用 after 引导的一般过去时的句子, 而主句是现在完成时。 在这种情况下, 若题目是 after 划线则把 after 改为 since,: SAT 语法讲义第 17 页 若是主句的动词化线则把现在完成时改为过去的时态。请看一下 2 个例句: 1 After the prince characterized modern architecture as ugly(A), he has been (B)severely (C)criticized for having been so spoken(D) in public. No error (E) 分析: 答案为 B,改为 was.由 after 引导的从句的谓语动词是 characterized,而主句的谓 语动词是 has 是现在完成时,这样主句和从句的时态就不一致了,所以我们要 把主句的时态改为过去的时态. 2 I have gone to(A) only one (B) football game after (C) I graduated (D)from high school. No error (E) 分析: 答案为 C,把 after 改为 since. (3)考察时态的特殊情 我们之前已经讲过主句和从句的时态要保持一致,但是有一些特殊的情况。如 果句中提到了有关名人名家作品的内容那么讲述这个内容的时态一定是一般 现在时。 例如: Set in A) South Carolina in 1964,the novel The Secret Life of Bee is (B)not ( about bees but about (C)Lily,a fouteen year old who runs away(D( from home. No error (E) 分析: 答案为 E,这是 09 年 10 月的一道真题,很多同学会错选 D 认为应该用过去式, 但是选项 B ,D 的时态都是讲述小说的内容所以应该用现在时态。 c 虚拟语气 从句(IF 条件句) 过去 现在 将来 主句 had done Would have done did Should/were to do SAT 语法讲义第 18 页 would do would do Some of the workers who resent (A) the supervisor’s authority would probably (B) feel uncomfortable if (C) they were to acquire the independence that they demand (D) . No error (E) 分析: 答案为 E,选项 A 和 D 分别是定语从句中的动词部分,这俩个时态一致都是一 般现在时所以正确, 但是句子的主干部分 Some of the workers would probably feel uncomfortable if they were to acquire the independence 使用了虚拟语 气,用法也是正确的。所以选 E d 不规则动词的过去分词 例:Although born in the Midwest, Langston Hughes lived most of his adult life in Harlem, in New York City, where (A), like (B) other writers in the 1930’s, he had wrote (C) some of his finest (D) works. No error (E)(P894.12) 分析: 答案为 C, have 后面应该用过去分词, 然而 wrote 是过去式, 所以应该改为 written. 还经常考的词有 swin swam swum ,drive drove driven 三 平行结构 ☆ 两者 or 三者 平行结构 句式 比较 SAT 对平行结构的要求十分严格同时也十分青睐平行结构。它已成为历年考试 的必考内容。 平行结构连接的俩个或者二个以上的部分必须保持词性和形式上的一致。 考点聚焦: (1) 名词,名词,and 名词; SAT 语法讲义第 19 页 to do ,to do and todo;(如果平行的成分只有 2 个则第二个成分的 to 可以省 略,但是如果是三个平行,那么第二个和第三个的形式要保持一致,要么都是 do,要么都是 to do .) doing,doing and doing; done,done and done 例 1: time Caroline turns on her computer , she has (A) to enter a company code, Each then her initials, and then enters a password (B) before (C) she can begin working (D). No error (E). 分析: 此题的正确答案为 B 选项, “enters” 将 去掉; 我们可以看出来 enter a company “ code, her initials, and a password” 符合我们的“N,N, and N” ;句子中出现的 几个“then”只是一个时间状语,并不影响句子主体结构。 例 2: the hundreds of warm‐water coral species, only a few (A) are highly prized (B) Of for use in jewelry because of their (C) beauty, luster, and they are hard (D). No error (E). 分析: 此题的正确答案为 D 选项,将 they are 去掉;beauty, luster, and hard 这样的 结构符合我们的平行原则。 3 .Although not (A) the first animated (B) feature film, Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first animated film to use (C) up‐to‐the‐minute techniques as well as achieving (D) widespread release. No error (E) 4.The tribal council's program familiarized young people with(A) Cherokee history, taught them (B)tribal traditions, and they had(C) the opportunity to (D)learn skills used by ancient artists. No error (E) 5. A lack of(A) job opportunities for recent graduate restricts their (B)independence, often forcing them to remain(C) at home or else they move (D)back on .No error (2)两者之间的平行 SAT 语法讲义第 20 页 如:not only…,but also…; neither…,nor… ;either…,or… As…..as…..; just as ……so; both…and….(必须用 and 用 as well as 是错误的) 例:Learning (A) a foreign languages is difficult not only because languages contain (B)an enormous number of words and because (C)people need to use a language to become (D)comfortable with it. No error (E). 分析: 此题的正确答案为 C 选项,前面有很明显的 not only,所以后面不能有 and 来并 列应用 but also . 注意:SAT 考试中,为了让平行结构清晰易懂,不产生歧义,应该重复介词。 例如:I have visited many libraries in US,not in Canada. In a recent year, more tourists from the United States visited museums in Great Britain than Canada. (A) Canada (B) Canada did (C) compared to Canada (D) Canadian ones (E) in Canada 分析: 此题的正确答案为 E 选项。Great Britain 前面有介词 in,所以根据平行结构的原 理 Canada 前面要加上 in。 (3) 还有一个很重要的平行句型就是 to do ….is to do….. 例如: 1 To insist that a poem means whatever one (A) wants it (B) to mean is often ignoring (C) the intention and even (D) the words of the poets. No error (E) (07.10, 29) 分析: 答案为 C,此题为 To insist ..is to ignore…..的结构 ,所以不能用 ignoring SAT 语法讲义第 21 页 2 To stand in (A) Persepolis in modern Iran and look out, as Darius the First must have done (B), at the immense sweep of fields and mountains (C) is to grasp (D) the vastness of the ancient Persian Empire. No error (E) 分析: 答案为 E,此题是 To stand …is to grasp….的结构 所以正确。 两个句子之间的平行,后一个句子之间用逗号加上连词隔开,或者直接用一 个分号隔开 标志:and,but,分号等 例句 Driving less (A) frequently is one way to save energy; to turn off all (B) appliances when they are (C) not being used is another (D). No error (E) (OG P720 18) 分析: 此题正确答案为 B 选项, 将起改为 tuning off” “ 与分号前面句子开头的 Driving” “ 进行对应。 (4) 同类比较的平行 a .SAT 有关比较的题型中,做比较的俩部分一定要具有可比性。 如: The population of China is larger than that of America. 所有格和所有格之间比较时, 第二个所有格是不能省略的, 需要补充 that of/those of/’s。 例如; (A) United State,the industrial use of (B)plastic is(C) greater In the than steel(D),aluminum,and copper combined. No error (E). 分析: 此题的正确答案为 D 选项, “steel” 在 前面加上 that of” “the industrial “ 表示 use of” 和前面进行对应。 b 当 as, like, unlike, compare with.做句首时,其后加的名词的性质应该和该句的 主语相同,否则为错误比较。 例如: Unlike Lily, the painting of Lucy is more intelligent. Lily 和 the painting of Lucy 就是错误比较,一个是人一个是物。以后在做题中 要注意。 SAT 语法讲义第 22 页 c 当俩个主语做比较的时候,我们应该把第二个主语后加上助动词,这样才不会 引起歧义。 I love the house more than my wife. I love the house more than my wife does. 这俩个就表达了不同的意思,第一句是 the house 和 my wife.做比较。第二句是 I 和 my wife 做比较。 但是, 当第二个主语过长的时候, 一般要倒装即把助动词放在第二个主语的前面。 例如; the air outside has a higher concentration rate than does the air inside the room. 四.形容词和副词 ☆ 形容词/副词 形容词、副词 错用 比较级、最高级 形容词间的辨析 adj.可以 修饰 n. / pron. adv.可以 修饰 v. / adj. / adv. 1.adj 和 adv 的混用, SAT 语法 ISE 题型中, adj 划线, 在 将 通常将其改为 adv; 反 之,将 adv 改成 adj 的情况。 例: Although canoeing through (A) the rapids was exciting, it was (B) also exhausting, and we were happy for a time to have the canoe float serene (C) down (D) a smooth stretch of the river. No error (E). 例:The research study reveals (A) startling proof of a constant (B) changing seafloor that comprises (C) the major part of (D) the underwater landscape. No error (E). 分析: SAT 语法讲义第 23 页 此 题 正 确 答 案 为 B 选 项 , 我 们 可 以 判 断 出 来 “constant” 是 用 来 修 饰 形 容 词 “changing”,所以将其改为“constantly。 I 例: (A) am reading the editorial correct(B),the mayor is deliberately avoiding any If (C)discussion of the tax‐reform bill until after(d) the election. No error (E) 分析: 此题正确答案为 B 选项。划线部分 “correct” 可以根据意思判断是用来修饰 “reading”,所以我们应该将其改为“correctly”。 2 adj 比较级和最高级 错误一般集中在两者之间用 most 的错误 ,三者之间用 more 的错误;已经是比 较级的词前面加上“more”,如“more stronger”。 例:In many respects (A) Anna and Emma are very similiarcharacters,but (B)Emma has(C) the most spirit (D)and determination. No error (E) 分析: 此题的正确答案为 D 选项,两者之间用“more”,所以“most”一定是错误的。 例: how (A) critical an improved balance of trade is to (B) a healthy economy has Just never been (C) more clearer (D) than it is now. No error (E). 分析: 此题的正确答案为 D 选项,在 clearer 已经是比较级的词了,前面用 more 就错 了。 五 固定搭配 2006-2010 期间所考固定搭配: 1. particular about 2. tendency to do. 3.unique to SAT 语法讲义第 24 页 4.differ from 5.capable of 6.familiar with 7.on the verge of 8.regard as. 9.limit to doing sth. 10. admire/criticize/condemn for. 11. advocate of 12.be devoid of 13.be desirous of 14.preoccupation with 15.be consistent with 16.acquirement with 17. equal to. 18.insight to. 19.treat to 20.deter sb. from.. SAT 语法讲义第 25 页 21 succeeded in 22 mistrust in 背过以上固定搭配后,请做一下练习来检验下: 1. It was (A) a Chinese American grower who finally succeeded with adapting (B) the now familiar (C) orange tree to(D) the American climate. No error (E) (06.1, 22) 2. F ive years in the writing (A), her new book is both a response (B) to her critics’ mistrust with (C) her earlier findings and an elaboration (D) of her original thesis. No error (E) (06.1, 28) 3. When the village elders present (A) recommendations, there is (B) hardly ever (C) any opposition against (D) their proposals. No error (E) ( Online Course 3,Section 4, 29) 4. Not very particular in (A) nesting sites (B), house wrens may nest (C) in birdhouses, mailboxes, building crevices—even in the pockets of (D) hanging laundry. No error (E) (06.5, 28) 选项特点: 这里总结出一些优选选项(即在题目中优先考虑的选项。这些选项做为正确答案 的概率很大,供同学们参考。意,这些答题技巧一定要在自己系统的复习完语 法知识之后再去运用,否则很容易起负面作用。 ① 平行结构划线,看结构中的各部分是否能够并列。 ② 代词划线,此时根据代词形式,找它的逻辑主语的单复数;主格与宾格的混 用,第三人称代词与第二人称、第一人称代词的混用。 ③ 动词划线,首先看第三人称单复数,再看时态,再看主动被动,最后看搭配。 ④ 形容词修饰名词,副词修饰形容词和动词。常混用。 ⑤名词划线。 ⑥ 固定搭配 IS 知识点综述: 一.简洁原则。 1.主动语态>被动语态。 SAT 语法讲义第 26 页 (若强调动作的承受者或者不知道动作的发出者是谁可使用被动语态) 2.动词>名词短语 3.形容词>定语从句 4.表示原因的时候,because 永远是最简洁的表达方式。 5.直接>间接 1.The chestnut, like the oak, is called an immortal tree, the reason is that the truck and roots remain alive even after the tree has been felled. (A) tree, the reason is that the truck and roots remain (B) tree, which has a truck and roots that are remaining (C) tree, the truck of which and the roots remain (D) tree because its truck and roots remain (E) tree, whose trunk and roots are remaining 2.The main reasons students give for failing to participate in the political process is that they have demanding assignments and work at part‐time jobs. (A) is that they have demanding assignments and work at (B) are demanding assignments and they work at (C) are that they have demanding assignments and that they work at (D) is having demanding assignments and having to work at (E) are demanding assignments, in addition to working at 3. When for the first time the United States imported more oil than it exported, Americans should have realized that an energy crisis was imminent and could happen in the future . (A) was imminent and could happen in the future (B) could happen imminently in the future (C) will be imminent and happening soon (D) is an imminent thing SAT 语法讲义第 27 页 (E) might be imminent 4. Because European filmmaking all but shut down during the First World War is the reason why the film industry in the United States rose to prominence. A) Because European filmmaking all but shut down during the First World War is the reason why B) Because European filmmaking all but shut down during the First World War, C) European filmmaking all but shut down during the First World War, D) With European filmmaking close to shutting down during the First World War, so E) The fact that European filmmaking nearly shut down during the First World War is why 5. The reason for the continued popularity of country‐ western performers is that it draws on experiences with which almost everyone can identify. (A) that it draws on (B) that their music draws on (C) because the music draws on (D) because of them drawing from (E) they will draw from 6. The poem' s colorful images and its verbal wit give the reader pleasure. (A) give the reader pleasure (B) please the one who is reading (C) gives pleasure to the one who reads it (D) give one pleasure in the reading of it (E) gives one pleasure in reading it 7. The reason first novels are so often their writers' best work is that it draws upon all the experiences of childhood. (A) is that it draws upon (B) is that these first efforts draw upon (C) is because of these first efforts drawing from (D) Is because of them drawing upon (E) Is their drawing from 8.We do not have absolute personal freedom because what anyone does would have an effect on other people's lives. (A) freedom because what anyone does would have an effect on other people's lives (B) freedom because it has an effect on the lives of other people (C) freedom because what we do affects other people (D) freedom, and the reason is the effect our actions have on other people (E) freedom, our actions having an effect on other people 9.The Roman Empire., often by questionable means, attempted to bring their SAT 语法讲义第 28 页 version, of law and order to provinces throughout Europe. (A) The Roman Empire, often by questionable means, attempted to bring their (B) The Roman Empire was often questionable in its means in its attempts to bring its (C) Using means that are often questionable, the Roman Empire, in attempting to bring its (D) Questionable means were often used by the Roman Empire, in attempting to bring its (E) Often by questionable means, the Roman Empire attempted to bring its 但是大家要注意简洁原则并不是最高原则, 并不意味这看哪个选项的答案简短 就选哪个,简洁原则要应用在已经排除了几个错误选项后,剩余的选项从语法 角度讲可能都是对的,这时就要用简洁原则来选一个表达最好最简洁的。 二. 句子结构问题 1. run on ;comma splices 判断: SVO, thus SVO. SVO, however SVO. SVO, but SVO. SVO, although SVO. SVO; therefore SVO. SVO; but SVO. SVO; although SVO. 2 sentence fragment e.g.:the girl who I saw last year. SAT 语法讲义第 29 页 ii 逻辑关系错误 1.Many students work after school and on weekends, consequently they do not have much time for doing their homework. A, weekends, consequently they do not have B, weekends, they do not have C, weekends, as a consequence they do not have D, weekends, therefore they do not have E, weekends; consequently, they do not have 2.Even the play’s most minor characters work together with extraordinary skill, their interplay creates a moving theatrical experience. A, their interplay creates a moving theatrical experience. B, a moving theatrical experience is created by their interplay C, and their interplay creates a moving theatrical experience. D, and a moving theatrical experience being the creation of their interplay E, with their interplay they create a moving theatrical experience. 3. Many people think taxes are too high, consequently, some of those people do not report all the, money they earn. (A) high, consequently, some of those people do not report (B) high, therefore, some of those people do not report. (C) high; consequently, some do not report (D) high, some people do not report (E) high, and therefore not reporting 4. Before reading the front page of the newspaper, my sister reads the sports section, my brother reads the comics first. (A) Before reading the front page of the newspaper, my sister reads the sports section, my brother reads the comics first. (B) My sister reads the sports section before reading the front page of the newspaper and my brother he reads the comics first. (C) Before reading the front page of the newspaper my sister reads the sports section; my brother reads the comics first. (D) My brother reads the comics first with my sister reading the sports section before reading the front page of the newspaper. (E) Before reading the front page of the newspaper, my sister reads the sports section; my brother reading the comics first. Because Uranus is nearly three billion kilometers from the Sun and is enveloped by a thick methane cloud Layer, this blocks almost all solar radiation. SAT 语法讲义第 30 页 (A) layer, this blocks almost all solar radiation (B) layer, this accounts for its receiving 'almost no solar radiation (C) layer is the reason why it receives almost no solar radiation (D) layer, almost no solar radiation reaches the planet Although the English artist William Blake never having painted portraits, he regarded them as merely mechanical reproductions that, despite their popularity, lacked true creativity. (A) Although the English artist William Blake never having painted portraits, he regarded them (B) The English artist William Blake never painted portraits, he regarded them (C) Never having painted a portrait, they were regarded by the English artist William Blake (D) The English artist William Blake never painted portraits; however, regarding them (E) The English artist William Blake never painted portraits because he regarded them Solar energy, for which there are many potential uses, can be beneficial so that it will produce energy without generating pollution. (A) beneficial so that it (B) beneficial because it (C) beneficial, although it (D) beneficial in order that it (E) beneficial because they 三.代词(同挑错) 重点是:指代不明和人称的偷换 指代不明要注意:which,it 都只能指代之前的名词,不能指代一个句子和动词。 当修改句子的题目中代词部分被划线而且判断出是指代不明,只选择不含任何同样代词 的句子。 During the labor dispute, barrels of potatoes were emptied across the highway, and they thereby blocked it to all traffic.(P599.4) (A) highway, and they thereby blocked it to all traffic (B) highway and thereby blocking it to all traffic (C) highway, by which all traffic was therefore blocked (D) highway, and therefore this had all traffic blocked (E) highway, thereby blocking all traffic SAT 语法讲义第 31 页 The lawyers representing the parking‐lot operators asserted as to the defensibility of their practices as legal and ethical.(P615.6) (A) as to the defensibility of their practices as legal and ethical (B) as to their practices and their defensibility on legal and ethical grounds (C) that their practices, that is the operators, are defensible in legal terms as well as ethics (D) that in regards to defensibility their practices are legally and ethically defensible (E) that the practices of the operators are legally and ethically defensible Karen, James, and Sam were hiking when, stumbling over a rock, he fell down a steep embankment. A. when, stumbling over a rock, he fell down a steep embankment B. and then he fell down a steep embankment after he stumbled over a rock C. when Sam fell down a steep embankment after stumbling over a rock D. when Sam fell down a steep embankment, since he stumbled over a rock E. and, since he stumbled over a rock, he fell down a steep embankment When Sheila and Lucy visited the restaurant, she noticed that the menu had changed and that their favorite dish was no longer offered. A. she noticed that the menu had changed B. she notices that the menu has changed C. Sheila has noticed the menu changed D. Sheila had noticed the menu changing E. Sheila noticed that the menu had changed Because each year our children spending increasingly more time in front of computer monitors and television screen, you need to limit their viewing hours and encourage them to go outdoors and play. A. you need to limit their viewing hours and encourage them to go outdoors and play B. one needs to limit our viewing hours and encourage ourselves to go outdoors and play C. it is necessary that their viewing hours should be limited and they themselves be encouraged to go outdoors and play D. we need to limit their viewing hours and encourage them to go outdoors and play E. you need to limit their viewing hours and encourage them to go outsides and play SAT 语法讲义第 32 页 In the sixteenth century, the forests were destroyed in Britain, which meant not only a shortage of the most important building material of the time, but also a fuel shortage. (A) the forests were destroyed in Britain, which meant not only a shortage (B) the forests in Britain were destroyed, which meant a shortage not only (C) the forests were destroyed in Britain, meaning a shortage not only (D) destruction of the forests in Britain meant not only a shortage (E) destruction of the forests in Britain meant a shortage not only Psychologists advise that before making any major changes in your life, a person needs to focus on one’s goals. (A) your life, a person needs to focus on one’s goals (B) their life, a person needs to focus on their goals (C) their lives, focus on the goals (D) one’s life, you should focus on your goals (E) their lives, people should focus on their goals When someone shops by mail or through the Internet, you will be following a tradition begun by the American colonists, who purchased almost everything from Europe. (A) you will be following (B) it is following (C) you will follow (D) he or she follows Naomi and Charles will represent Ammonton High in the debating contest, their work tn this haying been excellent this year. (A) contest, their work in this having been excellent this year (B) contest; they have done excellent work this year in this (C) contest, for this year they have done excellent work in this (D) contest, for their work as public speakers has been excellent this year (E) contest; their work as public speakers having been excellent this year One result of the fire department's new contract is that they can no longer offer overtime pay an weekends. SAT 语法讲义第 33 页 (A) One result of the fire department's new contract is that they can no longer offer overtime pay on weekends. (B) As one result of its new contract, the fire department‐ can no longer offer overtime pay on weekends. (C) One result of the fire department's new contract is that overtime pay on weekends can no longer be offered to them. (D) The fire department's new contract results in their no longer being able to offer them overtime pay on weekends. (E) One result of the fire department's new contract are that offering overtime pay on weekends is no longer possible. American journalist Harrier Quimby, the first woman to pilot a plane across the English Channel, doing it just nine years after the Wright brothers' first powered flight. (A) Harriet Quimby, the first woman to pilot a plane across the English Channel, doing it (B) Harriet Quimby the first woman who piloted a plane across the English Channel, and who did so (C) Hamer Quimby became the first woman to have piloted a plane across the English Channel and did it (D) Harriet Quimby became the first woman to pilot a plane across the English Channel, accomplishing this feat (E) Harriet Quimby was the first woman piloting a plane across the English Channel, the feat was accomplished 四.动词 (同挑错题) 重点:时态,主谓一致(倒装句) ,虚拟语气的倒装形式 省时间的原则:若是动词开始划线,先不要看后面的内容,只根据动词的主谓一致和时态就 以排除几个选项。 重要题型:s,……v o 1.Alongside the trail on which we ride our bikes each morning run a crooked line of SAT 语法讲义第 34 页 rugged old oak trees. (A) run a crooked line of rugged old oak trees (B) runs a crooked line of rugged old oak trees (C) runs rugged old oak trees in a crooked line (D) there runs rugged old oak trees in a crooked line (E) there run a crooked line of rugged old oak trees 2. Evidence from surveys and interviews show friendships made in high school tend to last longer than those made in college. (A) show friendships made in high school tend to last (B) show high school friendships that tend to last (C) is showing high school friendships tending to last (D) shows that friendships made in high school tend to last (E) shows friendships in high school tends to last (3) Although the exact cause of type 2 diabetes is unknown, experts say that for some people improper diet and lack of exercise contributes to the onset of the disease. (A) exercise contributes (B) exercise, they contribute (C) exercise contribute (D) exercise, contributing (E) exercise has been contributing (4) Since last September Patricia has been working at the convenience store down the road. (A) has been working (B) works (C) is working (D) will be working (E) worked 5. One of the most popular and attractive new cars were available for so little money that people thought something was wrong. (A) were available for so little money that people thought something was (B) was available for so little money that people thought something were (C) was available for so little money that people thought something has gone (D) was available for so little money that people thought something was (E) was selling for very little money, so people thought of it as something was 6.For weeks, one of the company's starring ballerinas were performing so infrequently that dance lovers feared something was wrong. (A) were performing so infrequently that dance lovers feared something was SAT 语法讲义第 35 页 (B) was performing so infrequently; dance lovers feared something to be (C) were performing so infrequently that dance lovers feared something has (D) was performing so infrequently that dance lovers feared something was 7. The convenience and widespread availability of watercolor paint account for its popularity with amateur artists. (A) account for its popularity (B) account for their popularity (C) accounts for its popularity (D) is why it is popular (E) are a reason for its popularity 8. In scenarios reminiscent of the old science fiction movie Fantastic Voyage, medical researchers hope exploring the body with miniature robots sent into the bloodstream. (A) hope exploring (B) hope to explore (C) hope it can explore (D) have hopes to explore (E) are having hopes of exploring 9. D.H.Lawrence, one of the most prolific novelists of his time , writing more than 40 volumes of fiction ,poetry and drama from 1911 to 1930. A. time, writing more than 40 volumes of fiction, poetry, and drama from 1911 to 1930 B .time,writing more than 40 volumes,which he wrote from 1911 to 1930 in the areas of fiction,poetry, and drama C. time,and he wrote more than 40 volumes of fiction, poetry, and‐drama from 1911 to 1930 D .time, wrote more than 40 volumes of fiction, poetry, and drama from 1911 to 1930 E .time, his fiction, poetry, and drama amounting to more than 40 volumes from 1911 to 1930 10. Pearl Buck, one of the most popular writers of her day, winning the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1938 for her novels about China. (A) day, winning the Nobel Prize in Literature in t938 for her novels about China (B) day, winning the Nobel Prize in Literature, which she won in 1938 for her novels about China (C) day, and she won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1938 for her novels about China SAT 语法讲义第 36 页 (D) day, won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1938 for her novels about China (E) day, her novels about China bringing her the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1938 11. The city is populated by many people who, although their common language is English, the languages at home range from speaking Armenian to Zapotec. (A) the languages at home range from speaking Armenian to Zapotec (B) speaking at home is in languages ranging from Armenian to Zapotec (C) the languages range from Armenian to Zapotec at home (D) speak languages at home that range from Armenian to Zapotec (E) they are speaking languages at home ranging from Armenian to Zapotec 12. C.G. Jung, a Swiss psychologist, whose renown as a pioneer in the field of psychoanalysis almost equals that of Sigmund FreUd. (A) C.G. Jung, a Swiss psychologist, whose renown as a pioneer (B) C.G. Jung, who was a Swiss psychologist and whose renown as a pioneer (C) A Swiss with renown as a psychological pioneer, C.G. Jung (D) C.G. Jung was a Swiss psychologist whose renown as a pioneer (E) A Swiss, C.G. Jung who was a psychological pioneer and whose renown 五.平行结构(同改错题) 没划线部分给划线部分找答案 1. To complete the music program, a student must present one vocal performance, one instrumental performance, and composing one original work. (A) and composing one original work (B) and one original composition (C) with one original composition (D) and to compose one original work (E) as well as the student’s original composition SAT 语法讲义第 37 页 The tornado ripped through the central part of town, toppling small buildings, uprooting trees, and power lines were snapped. (A) power lines were snapped (B) power lines snapping (C) snapping power lines (D) snapped power lines (E) power lines snapped Finding political support, designing a campaign, and, above all, the securing of financial backing are the challenging tasks faced by candidates. (A) the securing of financial backing are (B) the security of financial backing are (C) to secure financial backing is (D) securing financial backing is (E) securing financial backing are The revolt against Victorianism was perhaps even more marked in poetry than either fiction or drama. (A) either fiction or drama (B) either fiction or in drama (C) either in fiction or drama (D) in either fiction or drama (E) in either fiction or in drama Having Florence Nightingale as their leader and a growing awareness of the need for cleanliness helped to bring about the establishment of standards of hygiene in hospitals (A) Having Florence Nightingale as their leader (B) Having the leadership of Florence Nightingale's SAT 语法讲义第 38 页 (C) Florence Nightingale as the leader (D) To be led by Florence Nightingale (E) The leadership of Florence Nightingale Readers of the novice writer's recent book have said that it is at once frustrating because of its chaotic structure but its originality is still a delight. (A) but its originality is still a delight (B) although it is delightfully original (C) and it is delightful in its originality (D) while being so original as to delight them (E) but delightful because of its originality The spirit of the honor code to which each student subscribes requires academic honesty, respectful behavior, and ii demands responsibility in action. (A) requires academic honesty, respectful behavior, and it demands responsibility in action (B) requires academic honesty, respectful behavior, and responsible action (C) require academic work that is honest, behavior that is respectful, and action of a responsible nature (D) requires academic work that is honest, being respectful in behavior, and demands responsible action (E) require academic honesty, respectful behavior, and the demands of responsible action Today the primary role of advertising may be to appeal and persuade rather than what it once did, Educating and informing. (A) what it once did, educating and informing (B) what it once did, which w, as educating and informing (C) what it once was, education and information (D) educating and informing, what it once did SAT 语法讲义第 39 页 (E) what it once was, to educate and inform Most drivers know not only that excessive speeding on highways wastes gasoline, but also that it is dangerous. (P678.13) (A) know not only that excessive speeding on highways wastes (B) know that excessive speeding on highways could be wasteful of (C) are knowledgeable that excessive speeding on highways not only wastes (D) have known that excessive speeding on highways wastes not only (E) know that excessive speeding on highways not only by itself can waste Some people believe that one day we will establish not only bases on the Moon. but also a landing on Neptune will occur. (A) we will establish not only' bases on the Moon, but also a landing on Neptune will occur (B) not only' bases on the Moon will be established,but also a landing on Neptune will be made (C) we will not only establish bases on the Moon but also land on Neptune (D) we will not only establish bases on the Moon, but we will land on Neptune in addition (E) we will not only establish bases on the Moon, but we will land on Neptune With 12 national forests, Idaho is at the center of the battle between those who want to profit from federal timberlands or the ones wanting them to be saved. (A) or the ones wanting them to be saved (B) and the ones wanting that they are saved (C) and those who want to save them (D) as well as others, wanting to save them (E) as well as those who want that it be saved A healthy economy can be measured not only by the growth of businesses but it has a psychological effect on people. (A) it has a (B) as well in the (C) also by the (D) also the (E) in the way of having a Though now one of the most famous abstract artists, critics once ridiculed Jackson Pollock for his technique of splattering paint on canvases. (A) critics once ridiculed Jackson Pollock (B) critics were once ridiculing Jackson Pollock SAT 语法讲义第 40 页 (C) Jackson Pollock once ridiculed by critics (D) Jackson Pollock was once ridiculed by critics (E) Jackson Pollock, having once been ridiculed by critics Of all the states represented at the conference, the governor of Missouri was file only one to present plans for enforcing the new regulations. (A) the governor of Missouri was the only one to present (B) making the governor from Missouri the only one to present (C) Missouri's governor only presented (D) Missouri's governor presented the only (E) Missouri was the only one whose governor presented Like most new residents, the town's winding streets confused the Curtis family for a day or two. (A) the town's winding streets confused the Curtis family (B) the winding streets of the town confusing the Curtis family (C) the Curtis family was confused by the town's winding streets (D) the Curtis family, who found the town's windir streets confusing (E) there were winding streets in the town which confused the Curtis family Unlike American architects who preceded him. Frank Lloyd Wright did not draw on classical or European architecture for inspiration. (A) Unlike American architects who preceded him, Frank Lloyd Wright (B) Unlike the inspiration of American architects who preceded him, Frank Lloyd Wright (C) Frank Lloyd Wright' s architecture, unlike American architects who preceded him, (D) Different from the American architects who preceded him, Frank Lloyd Wright's The campus newspaper does not print as much world news as does my hometown. (A) as does my hometown (B) as does my hometown newspaper (C) compared to what my hometown does (D) like my hometown newspaper does (E) like the one in my hometown does The duties of a firefighter are often as dangerous as a police officer. (A) as a police officer (B) as those of a police officer (C) like a police officer (D) such as a police officer (E) like a police officer's The eerie songs of humpback whales, often lower in pitch and longer than birds, are intriguing to scientists partly because whales have no functional vocal cords, SAT 语法讲义第 41 页 (A) The eerie songs of humpback whales, often lower in pitch and longer than birds, (B) The eerie songs of humpback whales, which are often lower in pitch and last longer than birds, (C) Humpback whales' eerie songs, often pitched lower and longer thar that of birds, (D) The eerie songs o17 humpback whales, often lower in pitch and lasting longer than those of birds, Film audiences in the 1950's saw more musicals than the 1960's and 1970's. (A) than (B) than did (C) than the films of (D) than with the audiences in (E) than did audiences in No one is more sorrier than me that you missed the awards ceremony. (A) more sorrier than me (B) sorrier than I (C) more sorry like myself (D) as sorry like I am (E) sorrier but me 六.非谓语动词 现在分词有一般式和完成式。 它的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生的行为或存在的状态; 它的完成式 having + 过去分词) ( 表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作 或存在的状态。 过去分词只有一般式,表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。过去分词 (及物动词)本身可以表示被动的含义,因而没有别的被动形式。 做状语,分词短语在句中可做时间、原因、方式、伴随状语。 现在分词的动作和谓语动作同时或几乎同时发生、意思是主动的。而过去分词 的动作在谓语动作之前发生、意思是被动的。 SAT 语法讲义第 42 页 现在分词短语作插入语,为固定用法,不随句子主语的变化而变化即不用考虑 从句和主句逻辑关系的一致性: generally speaking, supposing(if),considering (考 虑到) judging from/by,talking of , e.g.: judging from the truth, he is honest enough. e.g. judging from the view, the earth is round. Seeing nobody at home,she decided to leave them a note. Deeply moved,she thanked me again and again. Having watered the vegetables,they began to pick up the Apples.=After they had w atered the vegetables,they began to pick up the apples. Dangling modifier : 一个短语想修饰该主句的主语但是逻辑上修饰错误。 e.g.: Seeing nobody at home, a note was left by her. 1. Lacking good instruction, my mistakes in creating a graph to illustrate historical trends were numerous. (A) my mistakes in creating a graph to illustrate historical trends were numerous (B) I made numerous mistakes in creating a graph to illustrate historical trends (C) there were numerous mistakes in the graph I created to illustrate historical trends (D) I created a graph to illustrate historical trends with numerous mistakes (E) The graph I made for illustrating historical trends had numerous mistakes 2. Carried by the strong, dry winds of the stratosphere, the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens caused dust that crossed the United States in three days and circled the globe in two weeks. (A) the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens caused dust that (B) Mount Saint Helens’ eruption in 1980 caused dust that (C) dust from the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens (D) dust from the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens that (E) there was dust from the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens and it 3. in the city, by walking outside or taking the subway, new people and events can be seen. A. new people and events can be seen B seeing new people and events SAT 语法讲义第 43 页 C new people and events being seen D. one can see new people and events E. it is new people and events that can be seen 4. If asked to name a musical group with broad and lasting appeal, the Beatles would be the choice of many, no matter what kindsof music are actually preferred. (A) the Beatles would be the choice of many, no matter what kinds of music are actually preferred (B) the Beatles will be chosen by many people, no matter what kinds of music are actually preferred (C) the choice for many people, whatever kinds of music they actually prefer, would be the Beatles (D) many, who actually preferred different kinds of music, choose the Beatles (E) many people, no matter what kinds of music they actually prefer, would choose the Beatles 5. Spread by rat fleas, millions of people in medieval Europe were killed by bubonic plague. (A) millions of people in medieval Europe were killed by bubonic plague (B) and millions of medieval Europeans were killed by bubonic plague (C) this led to the killing of millions of medieval Europeans by bubonic plague (D) bubonic plague in medieval Europe was why millions of people were killed (E) bubonic plague killed millions of people in medieval Europe 6. Burdened with three pieces of luggage and a pair of skis, Sarah's search for a baggage cart was desperate. (A) Sarah's search for a baggage cart was desperate (B) Sarah's desperate search was for a baggage cart (C) a baggage cart was what Sarah desperately searched for (D) a baggage cart for which Sarah desperately searched (E) Sarah searched desperately for a baggage cart 7 Having thought the problem through with some care, that the committee did not understand her solution frustrated the chairperson extremely. (A) that the committee did not understand her solution frustrated the chairperson extremely (B) the chairperson's extreme frustration resulted from the committee not understanding her solution (C) the chairperson's frustration at the committee's failing to understand her solution was extreme (D) the chairperson was extremely frustrated by the committee's failure to understand her solution (E) the committee's failing to understand her solution was art extreme frustration to the chairperson SAT 语法讲义第 44 页 8 The delegates coming this far, they did not want to return without accomplishing something. (A) The delegates coming this far, they (B) Coming this far, the delegates felt they (C) Having come this far, the delegates (D) To come this far, the delegates (E) The delegates came this far, so that they Serving as either business tools or recreational devices, computers, they are increasingly popular. (A) computers, they are increasingly popular (B) their popularity has increased (C) they have become more popular (D) computers are increasingly popular (E) computers, they are popular Brought to the United States at the age of thirteen to receive a Western education, his first book discusses Lee Yam Phou's childhood in China. (A) his first book discusses Lee Yah Phou's childhoo in China (B) Lee Yan Phou's childhood in China is the subjec of his Fri:st book (C) the subject of his first book is Lee Yah Phou' s childhood in China (D) Lee Yan Phou discusses his childhood in China in his first book (E) Lee Yan Phou, whose childhood was in China, discusses this in his first book Raised in a large mad noisy city, it was only when went away to college that I realized how delightful life in a small town could be (A) it was only when I went away to college that I realized how delightful life in a small town could be (B) when I went away to college I then realized how delightful life in a small town could be (C) going away to college made me realize how delightful life in a small town could be (D) I did not realize how delightful life in a small town could be until I went away to college (E) delightful life in a small town was unrealized by me until I went away to college By simply entering an internet website or calling a toll‐free number, a catalog order can be placed for almost anything from cheesecakes to fully equipped desktop computers. (A) a catalog order can be placed (B) by placing a catalog order (C) they will place your catalog order (D) you can place a catalog order (E) your catalog order can be placed SAT 语法讲义第 45 页 While driving down the road, the house with the large yard and small pond attracted the family’s attention. (A) the house with the large yard and small pond attracted the family’s attention (B) the house having the large yard and a small pond attracted the attention of the family (C) the house with the yard and small pond was attractive to the family’s attention (D) the family’s attention was attracted by the house with the large yard and small pond (E) the family was attracted to the house with the large yard and small pond Although criticized by a few for her daredevil aviation escapades, most people viewed Amelia Earhart as a skillful pilot. (A) most people viewed Amelia Earhart as a skillful pilot (B) most people viewed Amelia Earhart to be a skillful pilot (C) a skillful pilot was what most people viewed Amelia Earhart as (D) Amelia Earhart was viewed by most people as a skillful pilot (E) Amelia Earlhart, a skillful pilot in the view of most people Before signing up for next year's courses, the students' schedules must be approved by their advisers. (A) the students' schedules must be approved by their advisers (B) the students must have their schedules approved by their advisers (C) their advisers must approve the schedule of each student (D) the schedules of students must be approved, and by their advisers (E) approval of each one's schedule must be given by their advisers There is many challenges associated with starting one’s own business. (A) is many challenges associated (B) is many challenges to associate (C) is many challenges associating (D) are many challenges associated (E) are many challenges which associate Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow PUSH Coalition was established to encourage populations to become socially and politically active, was created in 1996 by the merging of two groups Jackson had previously founded. (A) Coalition was established (B) Coalition is established (C) Coalition, establishing (D) Coalition, which being established (E) Coalition, established SAT 语法讲义第 46 页 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2012 for the course BUSINESS 2301 taught by Professor Ken during the Spring '03 term at BUPT.

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