2.1_Cell_Biology_I - With a foundation in basic chemistry...

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Unformatted text preview: With a foundation in basic chemistry and biochemistry, we are now ready for an introduction to cell biology. People define life at the level of the cell. 1 The idea that the cell is the basic unit of life is a fundamental concept of biology. These are the associated principles of the cell theory: all organisms are either single celled or made of multiple cells. Cells do not generate from non-cells and there is genetic information passed on at each generation. 2 The basic cell types include two categories: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The fundamental difference is that eukaryotes possess membrane bound organelles and prokaryotes do not. There are many other differences as well such as size, cell wall, and DNA organization. We will be concentrating on eukaryotic cells in this presentation; however, lets look at prokaryotes a bit more. 3 4 Prokaryotes include the ubiquitous bacteria with which eukaryotes such as ourselves are intimately associated. We normally associate these organisms with disease; however, we are dependent on them for many things such as the vitamin K we derive from bacteria in our large intestines. An important difference between eukaryotes and the common prokaryotic bacteria is the presence of the cell wall made of material call peptidoglycan which is a complex material made of sugars and amino acids. Many eukaryotic organisms produce lysozyme which is an enzyme that breaks specific chemical bonds of peptidoglycan and thus kill bacteria. Lysozyme is abundant in our tears and saliva. 5 Heres a basic model of eukaryotic cell anatomy. Notice the use of membranes to delineate many of the organelles. Eukaryotic cells are typically much bigger than prokaryotic cells. We will cover each organelle with more detail through the presentation. As noted in a previous presentation, the lipid bilayer is the basic structure of the membrane. The hydrophilic portions face outward and inward with the hydrophobic part being sandwiched between. There are many structures, mostly proteins, imbedded in membranes....
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2.1_Cell_Biology_I - With a foundation in basic chemistry...

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