1.3_Basic_Biochemistry_II - Now we build on the basic...

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Now we build on the basic chemistry of chapter 2 to explore the molecules of life in chapter 3. 1
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This presentation covers a lot of ground- we will overview the basics of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Make sure to focus your study on the concepts highlighted by the presentation and this week’s study guide. 2
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3 As discussed in the last presentation, the human body is made up of mostly four or so elements representing water and organic molecules containing carbon. In this presentation, I will go into to more detail on the biochemistry of these organic molecules. The major categories of organic molecules are carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Nucleic acids will also be introduced in this presentation.
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4 The most abbreviated way of displaying covalently bonded molecules is with the stick- like structural formula style. This style is further abbreviated when used for organic carbon-containing molecules such as the fatty acid butyric acid on the right where each carbon is represented by a bend in the line and the covalently bonded hydrogen atoms are not shown but implied when no other atoms are shown.
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5 Hydrogen bonds play an important role in organic molecules, especially in the structure of proteins and nucleic acids. Hydrogen bonds are likely to occur when hydrogen atoms are bonded to larger atoms such as oxygen.
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Carbon is central to our understanding of biochemistry and the important aspect of the carbon atom to remember is that it typically forms four bonds with other atoms. The three basic types of molecules involving carbon are carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. 6
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Let’s start with carbohydrates made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a typical ratio of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom. 7
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Carbohydrates are categorized as simple or complex; however, they are very similar in basic makeup. Simple carbohydrates include sugars or saccharides and there are three common simple sugar molecules: glucose, fructose and galactose. Think of these as simple building blocks or monomers that will be linked together to form larger molecules called polymers. 8
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9 Glucose is a very common monosaccharide that has the greatest importance to living organisms. It is used as a primary energy source by cells and also is the basic building block for complex carbohydrates used for structural support in plants and energy storage in plants and animals. When dissolved in water, it forms a ringed structure shown on right.
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10 Another simple carbohydrate type is called the disaccharide which involves two monosaccharides bonded together. We are most familiar with sucrose or common sugar which is fructose and glucose bonded together with the same dehydration reaction as shown here for maltose.
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resulting larger molecules as complex carbohydrates or polysaccharides. Here are the most common polysaccharides to be familiar with. 11
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2012 for the course BIOL 212 taught by Professor Rockhill during the Spring '08 term at Seattle Central Community College.

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1.3_Basic_Biochemistry_II - Now we build on the basic...

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