History IA - Massa1 001018-105 Pierre Massa History IA...

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Massa1 001018-105 Pierre Massa History IA January 11, 2010 To what extent were the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki necessary for the surrender of Japan? A. Plan of Investigation This investigation will assess the degree in which the United States felt it necessary to bomb the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A conclusion will be reached after this investigation and evaluation of evidence and sources, following this sequence: 1. Examine the primary sources of websites, documentaries, and articles regarding uses of nuclear bombs to assess their necessity. 2. Examine additional primary and secondary sources to: a. Understand political conditions during World War II b. Show causes for the nuclear bombings c. Demonstrate the effects of the nuclear bombs d. Demonstrate the Japanese reactions 3. Analyze the evidence acquired and conclude the reason and ethics of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki B. Summary of Evidence 1. Japanese Action in WWII The Japanese war plan worked to perfection. “On December 7, 1941, Japan paralyzed the Pacific Fleet in its attack on Pearl Harbor. In the Philippines, Japanese fliers destroyed most of MacArthur's air force on the ground. Freed of effective opposition, Japanese forces took Burma, Malaya, Singapore, and the Dutch East Indies in rapid succession” ("World War II History. Info"). By March 1942 the Japanese had conquered an empire. Only MacArthur's beleaguered American-Filipino army still held out on the main Philippine island of Luzon. A Japanese army had landed in northern Luzon on December 22, 1941 and began to push southward toward Manila. At first, MacArthur was inclined to meet the Japanese on the beaches. But he had no air force, and the U.S. Navy's tiny Asiatic fleet was in no position to challenge Japan at sea. “The U.S. regulars and Philippine Scouts were excellent troops but were outnumbered and without air support. Giving up his initial strategy of defeating the enemy on the beaches, MacArthur decided to withdraw to the Bataan Peninsula. There he could pursue a strategy of defense and delay, shortening his lines and using the mountainous, jungle-covered terrain to his advantage. Perhaps he could even hold out long enough for a relief force to be mounted in the United States”. ("World War II History. Info")
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Massa2 001018-105 Pearl Harbor At 6:00 a.m. on December 7 the Japanese fleet was 230 miles north of Oahu. Six carriers turned into the wind and launched the first wave - 183 planes (Dinkins). At the launching, two Zero fighters dropped from the mission: One crashed into the sea on takeoff, another developed engine trouble and was left on board the carrier. At 6:20 Commander Fuchida led the first wave of planes toward Pearl Harbor. At Pearl Harbor, as morning colors were readied and sailors and civilians ate breakfast,
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History IA - Massa1 001018-105 Pierre Massa History IA...

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