Environmental Challenges

Environmental Challenges - Meeting the Meeting the...

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Unformatted text preview: Meeting the Meeting the Environmental Challenges Environmental Challenges of 21st Century Vehicles of 21st Century Vehicles Charles L. Gray, Jr. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Michigan State University Michigan State University College of Engineering College of Engineering Fall 2010 - ME 444 2 Strategic Challenges Strategic Challenges Business Challenges: Compliance with Tier2 and 2007/2010 emission standards Ever increasing cost of petroleum Societal Challenges: Clean Air Climate Change issues Resource conservation Costs of increasing oil imports Higher trade deficits National security The need for new ultra clean and ultra fuel-efficient technologies are becoming more urgent! 3 Climate Change A Trio of Environmental A Trio of Environmental & Energy Issues & Energy Issues Oil Use/Imports Oil Use/Imports (Energy Conservation) (Energy Conservation) Urban Air Urban Air Quality Quality 4 Vehicle Miles Traveled Vehicle Miles Traveled Continues to Grow Dramatically Continues to Grow Dramatically 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 1 9 5 6 7 8 2 Calendar Year Highway VMT (trillion mile Source : U.S. DOT - Federal Highway Administration Highway Statistics 2002 5 Future Consumption? Future Consumption? 100 150 200 250 300 1 9 5 2 3 Forecast Year Annual Fuel Consumption (Bil Gal) Low VMT High VMT * Area covered in the previous slide. * 6 Ozone has been shown to reduce yields of vegetables and field crops Clean Air Act requires EPA to take steps to remedy regional haze in 156 pristine Class I areas 65 million people live in areas that violate the fine PM air quality standard; 159 million people live in areas that are not in attainment for ozone Diesel exhaust is likely to be carcinogenic to humans Fine particles from diesel exhaust can remain in the atmosphere for weeks, and carry over hundreds of miles Vehicles Contribute to Unhealthy Air for Millions Vehicles Contribute to Unhealthy Air for Millions 7 Air Quality: Air Quality: The Outlook The Outlook Next generation of standards should continue to outpace VMT growth May require long-term move to inherently cleaner technologies for at least some cities 8 Factoid: Percent of US oil consumption accounted for ... by transportation: 66% ... by personal vehicles: 40% U.S. Oil Consumption U.S. Oil Consumption Carries Risks Carries Risks Fundamental U.S. Supply/Demand Problem Even Cheap Oil Presents Risks 4% of reserves; 30% of consumption Production peaked in early 70s Import 55% in 2001,...
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Environmental Challenges - Meeting the Meeting the...

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