Road Vehicle Fuels - Fuels for Road Vehicles Basics of Gasoline Diesel Fuel E85 Gaseous Fuels and Biodiesel Michigan State University College of

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Fuels for Road Vehicles Basics of Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, E85, Gaseous Fuels, and Biodiesel Michigan State University College of Engineering Fall 2011 – ME 444 Elana Chapman Fuels/Biofuels Engineer Materials Engineering, Fuels and Lubricants Group General Motors LLC
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Outline Fuels for Spark Ignition Engines Fuels for Compression Ignition Engines Why emphasis on Biofuels? Quiz
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Petroleum Source of fuels Petroleum-based fuels come from crude oil Crude oil varies depending where in the world it comes from
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Map: API, Understanding Today’s Energy Needs. Crude oil import data: EIA In 2008, over 75% of U.S. gross crude oil imports came from five locations: Persian Gulf (24%), Canada (20%), Mexico (12%), Venezuela (11%), Nigeria (9%). Source: EIA. Flow of Crude Oil
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Crude Oil Refining
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Regional Consumption by Fuel Type 47.5 21.3 28.4 29.8 49.0 37.5 3.2 10.2 13.4 19.5 19.5 20.7 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% US EU 25 Asia Pacific Consumption demand Other Hvy dist Mid dist Lt dist Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2009 Lt dist = Aviation and motor gasoline. Mid dist = jet fuel, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Hvy dist = Marine bunker fuel and crude oil used as fuel. Other = refinery gas, LPG, coke, lubricants, solvents, bitumen, wax.
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Flow From Refinery to Pump Pipeline, barge railcar, truck Supply terminal Retail station Truck Ethanol Biodiesel
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U.S. Pipeline Distribution System Gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel move in the same pipelines Fuels are fungible (interchangeable) products
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Fuels for Spark Ignition Engines The primary fuels in North America are gasoline and E85 Gasoline: primarily hydrocarbons with up to 3.5 mass % oxygen (as 10% ethanol) and a small amount of additives Controlling specification is ASTM D4814 Spark-ignition fuel volatility is adjusted seasonally Volatility affects vehicle driveability o Winter: Improve cold start o Summer: Reduces hot restart, evaporative emissions
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E85 51-83 volume % ethanol blended with Ethanol content controlled by desired volatility Ethanol has a low vapor pressure Less ethanol in winter to ensure good start-up Controlling specification is ASTM D5798 Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is 10 compared to 14.7 for gasoline E85 has (R+M)/2 octane value of about 96-98 Lower heating value than gasoline (12,500 BTU/lb vs. 18,500 BTU/lb)
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Effect of Ethanol on Distillation of Gasoline 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent evaporated Degrees, F E0 E10 E85
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Antiknock Quality Ability of gasoline to resist knocking Knock: engine noise produced by rapid pressure rise as a result of abnormal combustion Expressed as octane number Two laboratory test methods measure octane number Both use single cylinder, variable compression engines Each uses different operation conditions
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RON (R): Research Octane
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2012 for the course ME 444 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Road Vehicle Fuels - Fuels for Road Vehicles Basics of Gasoline Diesel Fuel E85 Gaseous Fuels and Biodiesel Michigan State University College of

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