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GE History of Modern Thought Midterm 1

GE History of Modern Thought Midterm 1 - History of Modern...

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History of Modern Thought Midterm Study Guide: Niccolo Machiavelli Humanists Studied the culture of ancient Rome and Greece Medici family Fortuna and virtu Virtù is translated in many different ways. "Power" or "strength of character" perhaps come closest, but other translations abound: Virtù can be the quality of a person's strength of body or mind, but it can also refer to the spirit of a nation. Fortuna, usually translated with "fortune" (or sometimes "luck") The Copernican system Galileo The Starry Messenger Descartes Discourse on Method The Renaissance As a cultural movement, it encompassed a revival of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. The upheavals occurring in the arts and humanities were mirrored by a dynamic period of change in the sciences. Science and art were very much intermingled in the early Renaissance, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci making observational drawings of anatomy and nature. Yet the most significant development of the era was not a specific discovery, but rather a process for discovery, the scientific method. It influenced Art, Science, Culture, Religion. The invention of the printing press allowed the rapid transmission of these new ideas. Aristotle and Ptolemy Scholasticism Static Universe The Divine Plan Doctrine of Forms The English Civil War Atomism Aristotle’s forms Reformation/Counter Reformation Index of Forbidden Books Jesuits Martin Luther The English Civil War (Revolution of the 1640s) – Leviathan Thomas Hobbes of Malmsbury was a man who lived with fear. In his autobiography, Hobbes recounted that on the day of his birth in 1588, his mother learned that the Spanish Armada had set sail to attack England. This news so terrified Hobbes's
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