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GEO 3340 Political Geography 2 nd Exam Study Guide *IMPORTANT: if it’s not on this study guide, it’s not going to be on the exam* What term did Ratzel use in an attempt to define the core area of a State o nucleus Be able to differentiate between nuclear core , original core , and contemporary core(historical development) o Nuclear: implies growth o Original: most important yet area was already established; no growth o Contemporary: greatest econ and poli importance toda; superceded previous core areas Be able to differentiate between central core , marginal core , and external core (Spatial location) o Central: ex. Santiago, paris o Marginal: core is in margins of countries territory ; usually borderlans/coast o External: not in country ex. Botswana/johannesburg Be able to explain the primary core and secondary core concepts using the United States as an example o Primary: NE U.S. o Secondary core: South California Know why Europe’s core areas tend to be the easiest to classify o The different Core areas were defined based on Europe’s core areas; their core areas are focused on capital city(cultural and political heart of country) Know why Latin America’s core areas reflect the original settlement pattern Be able to explain how Africa’s core areas are developing, particularly as it relates to how Europe’s core areas and capitals developed o States are young; most are single cores centered around capital Be able to define ecumene /effective national territory:
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o Ecumene: inhabited world; portion of total territory that contributes to states economic viability and where the govt reasonably functions Know how some States have used their capitals in a symbolic fashion o Important as national symbols; ex. Addis Ababa, Ehtiopi(mask in which rest of Ethiopia hides) Know what some States have done when selecting capital locations to prevent any favoritism being shown to any particular internal political unit; know a few examples of countries that have done this Be able to define primate city o Country’s leading city-disproportionally large in terms of population; exceptionally expressive of natl character and feeling; if capital moves, primate city still remains primal city. Be able to differentiate between permanent capitals , introduced capitals , divided capitals , and forward capitals , giving examples of each o Permanent: ex. London, Athens o Introduced: explicit function of serving as political capital;ex. Tokyo replacing kioto, and Washington D.C. o Divided: Countries divide up functions of govt among diff cities; ex. Netherlands, Bolivia, S. Africa(Pretoria- admin, Cape Town-legislative, Bloemfontein-judicial) o Forward: Serves function above and beyond; serves another function; ex. Brazilia, Brazil and Islamabad, Pakistan Be able to explain how some capital cities have served a headlink function; remember the Belgrade, Yugoslavia example o
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