BIS 104 Winter 2012: PQs 1 – 5 answers 1. State the hypothesis that is being tested in the PNAS article by S. De, et al. Expression of the integrin proteins α 5 β 3 by tumor cells regulates tumor cell VEGF expression, thereby enhancing tumor growth and angiogenesis. (in this case, hypothesis = title of article). 2. For each of the items listed below, desribe its composition and its function. A. VEGF and VEGFR2: These are both proteins. VEGFR2 is a trans-membrane receptor found in the PM of endothelial cells, and is activated by binding its ligand, VEGF. VEGF is a soluble protein synthesized and secreted by tumor cells. Activation of VEGFR2 stimulates angiogenesis. B. INTEGRINS: Integrins are a family of trans-membane proteins that serve as cell adhesion receptors and may also function in trans-membrane signaling (both outside-in and inside-out) across the PM. C. LNCaP null cells: This is an established human prostate cancer cell line. They are “null” cells because they have lost the gene that codes for
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