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KIN459 Exam 3 - 459 Exam 3 Obesity Obesity trends among US...

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459 Exam 3 Obesity: Obesity trends among US adults between 1985 and 2003 Obesity—having a very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass OR a BMI of 30 or higher BMI—a measure of an adult’s weight in relation to his or her height (kg/m 2 ) Overweight BMI >25 ~67% of adults over age of 20 are overweight or obese ~34% are obese BMI obesity classes o Class I = BMI 30-35 o Clas II = BMI 35-40 o Class III = BMI >40 These rates have been increasing about 0.5% per year $100 billion/year spent to treat obesity-related conditions, representing 5-10% of health care dollars spent annually Prevalence of “overweigh” by age number of people that are overweight is going down but that is because a greater amount are OBESE Obesity now more prevalent than overweight Today: 34% of Americans are obese, 327% overweight 6% are extremely obese (Class II or III) Prevalence of obesity has more than doubled since 1980, but the prevalence of overweight has remained stable 32% of US children are overweight, 16% obese, and 11% extremely obese In ten years (from 70s to 80s), the rate of obesity almost doubled BMI can be misleading…sarcopenia Sarcopenic obesity—a new category of obesity in the elerly Body mass and body composition changes in elderly Fat free mass (mainly muscles)—decreases progressively from 20-30 years of age Fat mass—relatively steady, or increases in middle age before declining in very old age Result: Prevalence of obesity in the elderly, as defined by BMI, declines slightly because loss of muscle mass is greater than gain of fat mass Even if TOTAL fat mass doesn’t change so much in the elderly, what is left is redistributed to the viscera Subcutaneous adipose tissue—pinchable fat Visceral adipose tissue—hard fat Obesity & Disease Heart disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, gallstones, metabolic syndrome o Risk of most of these diseases increases linearly at BMI >25
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o Also evidence for increased risk below BMI of 25 o There is a “U” or “J” shaped relationship between BMI and disease prevalence Obesity is a major risk factor for a young person to develop diabetes, but old people have so many other risk factors that it isn’t as significant Study: obesity in middle age = bad old age o Obese women in middle age were 79% less likely to be healthy at age 70 than normal weight women in middle age o 60% had cognitive, physical, or mental health limitations but no diagnosed major diseases; and 37% had both chronic diseases and cognitive, physical and mental health limitations o The women least likely to end up healthy in old age were already overweight at 18 and gained as little as 10kg, or just 22 lbs, by age 50 compared to women who stayed lean all their lives o These findings “emphasize the importance of maintaining a healthy weight from early adulthood” Conclusions regarding obesity in the elderly Prevalence of obesity peaks in “early elderly”
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