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Unformatted text preview: ID: Test Test ID: 1491 Downloader ID: 14396 Test ID: 1491 ANT 253 HIF Test IB (October 28, 2008) STUDENT ID# Downloader ID: 14396 F~ E-MAIL ADDRESS ~ Dow Thefollowing questions are based on the material covered in chapters 1 through 4 of the course textbook. Please clearly indicate your answer in ink. If you use pencil, you will be forbidden from contesting your mark, even if an arithmetic error was made in its calculation. Good luck! nlo ade r ID: 143 96 Test Section I. ID: 1491 True or False (25 marks) Te st Eric Lenneberg suggests that there is a critical period for language acquisition. In other words, he hypothesized that a person's ability to learn a language fluently comes to an end at the end of childhood, roughly around puberty. ID : 14 91 Test Test ID: 1491 ID: 1491 6 39 : 14 ID er ad lo wn Do co m Some speakers of Spanish pronounce the word yerno ("son-in-law") with an initial 6 -r 3. [s] is a fricative consonant, which means that it is an obstruent. 39 2.'1' Te [j], others with an initial st Te [Z], but both pronunciations are acceptable and intelligible to Spanish speakers. This is an example offree variation. 91 14 14 ud dy . : 14 ID 6 39 : ID er ad lo Test ID: 1491 er Calvin greets his boss with the utterance "Good morning, ma 'am," but he greets his friends with the utterance "fo yo yo." When he greets his mother, he says "Hi." This is an example of complementary distribution. lo ad Test 1491 Do ID : 6 ud e 91 14 : 96 st 14 3 [-U ID The nucleus of this word is : .s t Te LU. lo ad er : 6 Do wn lo ad nl o 91 14 14 39 ID : ad Do wn er Core vocabularies are used by linguists to reconstruct languages and to estimate the relative length of time ,elapsed since two languages within a family began to diverge from one another. st .f 39 149 1 er ID : 14 39 6 The fact that the modern Romance languages (e.g. Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, etc) do not make use of the contrastive long-short vowel system used in Latin is an example of Andre Martinet's Principle of Economy. Do w 96 r ID: 143 ade nlo Dow Down load 10. 14 Tes t ID: The IPA transcription for the monosyllabic English word thing is ID 9.L ad er Te l' 8. lo Ferdinand de Saussure proposed that the goal of linguistics be to understand the nature of the systematic rules that members of a speech community recognize as their language (langue), rather than on their ability to use those rules in conversations and writing (parole). on to 7.£ wn The exclamation "There's the rat!" has at least two distinct meanings. It can mean, "There's the animal called a rat," and it can also mean, "There's the person whom I believe exhibits the metaphoric attributes of a rat." This is an example of a distinction between denotative and figurative meaning. or 'I 6. Do nt b wn ID: ID _4.£ ID : wn Do ut st 14 st Te ID : 14 91 91 : ID er ID: 1439 6 Sufferers of Broca's aphasia can articulate words fluently, but they have difficulty comprehending the meanings of words and choosing appropriate words with which to communicate their desires and intentions. Test ID: 1491 11. ~ The concept of Universal Grammar (VG) was innovated by Zellig Harris in the 1950s. l2.I Nostratic is a reconstruction of a language that is hypothesized to have been spoken 14,000 years ago / throughout Europe, the Indian subcontinent, the near East, and Northern Asia, and that may have been one of the original tongues of humankind. Downloader ID: 14396 Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 91 14 : ID t Tes 143 96 r ID: ade ID : 14 91 Dow nlo st 96 Te 143 ade nlo Dow r ID: ID: 1491 st ID : 14 91 Test Te \ ANT 253 HIF Test 18 (October 28, 2008) Test ..!. 149 1 1491 ID l3 . t ID: ID: : 91 14 Residents of Vancouver tend to velarize the second consonant in the word Vancouver (Le. [v~_'kuvJ]), while Torontonians tend to pronounce it alveolarly (Le. [vren'kuvJ]). This is an example of dillcMoriic language variation. -,-" st Te Tes Test ID: 1491 er ad lo wn Do : ID 6 39 14 14. "'f-.-- P. Some synonyms for the English word up include words like elevated, increased, and risen, while some antonyms include down, decreased, andfallen. All of these words, however, can be lexigraphically classified together because they share the semantic feature [+height). The English words judges and hats each contain one root morpheme and one grammatical morpheme. Both root morphemes are free forms, and the grammatical morphemes are allomorphs of the same morpheme. 91 : 14 ID st Te 16. ') The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is standardized such that one symbol is invariably understood to represent one and only one sound. For example, the first sound in philosophy, and the last sound in enough are both represented with the symbol [t]. Te st ID : 14 91 39 : 6 14 ID er ad lo 6 Vowels are voiced in some languages, but voiceless : : ID t ID: 149 lo wn er ad lo : ID 6 39 14 143 96 : load er ID: 6 14 ID : er ad lo Anchises' reference to his son's professor inform language usage. characterization wn 22.:1 as a "hot" field is an example of denotation. of linguistic anthropology exhibit a masterful command of a highly formal register of English. as "the woman professor' Te illustrates how social inequalities can st ID : 14 91 Aeneas' tendency to use blended forms like "gonna" and "gotta" exemplifies Principle of Least Effort. Anchises' 1439 on or ut Both Aeneas and Anchises 25.L : to 6 39 14 21.~ ~24.1 ID ID Anchises' 23. , Down Downloader ID: 14396 20.~ ,-.- st er ad Aeneas: Anchises: Aeneas: Anchises: Hey, dad. Hi. how's school going? It's goin • okay. I think I'm gonna major in linguistic anthropology. My prof gave this amazing lecture on conceptual metaphor today. That's a pretty hot field. I hear. Is she the woman professor that I met earlier this year at the Hart House barbeque? Yeah, I think so. She 's a charismatic one, all right. For sure. All right, gotta go study now. Okay. Say hi to your roommate for me. Te lo wn Do Anchises: 96 39 r ID: 143 91 ade r ID: 14 nlo ade 20 to 25 based on its content by clearly indicating de Dow .s tu Aeneas: Anchises: Aeneas: nlo nt wn Do Do 1 Dow bu ad 91 14 dd st er Te 1 Tes Consider the following dialogue, and then answer questions whether the statements are true or false: 149 st The meaning of the word vermilion is included in the meaning of the word red, just as the meaning of the word lily is included in the meaning of the word flower. Both of these examples are instances ofhyponymy. ID 19.1 Tes t ID: in others . 14 .-...-. ID : 14 91 39 6 6 14 39 Te 18. '\= : Do st ID m er co lo ad y. ID Do wn Downloader ID: 14396 sees a domesticated feline, points at it, and then utters the word "cat." The animal that she is pointing to is an abstract referent, and the word that she has uttered is a sign. : 14 17.r Lavinia Te 91 wn Do final line is an example ofan illocutionary George Kingsley Zipf's ac!:.. Anchises' observation about the professor's charisma is unintelligible. As Michael Halliday might say, his use of the pronoun "she" is non-systemic, as language forms are dependent on sentences rather than texts. Hence, Aeneas cannot be expected to understand who is being referenced. Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com Test ID: 1491 This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. wn Do ad lo er : ID 14 6 39 Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Test ID: 1491 Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 2 1491 ID: Test 149 Tes 1 t ID: : 91 14 149 ID Tes st t ID: Te Section 11. 1 ANT 253 HIF Test IB (October 2S, 200S) Multiple Choice (10 marks) Test ID: 1491 er ad lo wn Do : ID 6 39 14 / / 26. Which of the following statements is TRUE? Tes t ID: a. 149 1 ID st Te Charles S.~irce pragmatics. conver~onal b. was an eminent philosopher of language who innovated the distinction between 39 14 6 quality and conversational quantity, in addition to founding the sociolinguistic study of : ID Do wn lo er ad The proc s of reconstructing Proto-Indo-European (pIE) has relied heavily on the comparative analysis of co ates. Cognates are archaeological data (e.g. potshards, arrowheads) whose age can be determined t ugh radiocarbon analysis. 6 39 : 14 ID er ad lo wn Do 14 91 Basic to Ferdinand de Saussure's plan for the study of langue was the notion of dijJerance (difference, opposition), which is the view that the structures of a language do not take on meaning and function in isolation, but in relation to each other. This approach has come to be known as structuralism. Te st ID : 14 st ID : om 91 y. c 14 39 6 Te 27. Which of the following statements is FALSE? bu all adult females "mommy," or all adult males "daddy." 1491 / Dow nlo ade r ID: Franz Boas was an anthropologist who innovated the notion of cultural relativism. 14 39 that language arose alongside the invention of percussion instruments. on b. 6 14 39 : ID : t Th~eory 6 6 ID : 14 39 ad er Te s lo to a. Do wn .s tu Downloader ID: 14396 ID 28. Which of the following is one of the five frameworks included in Otto Jespersen's typology oflanguage origin theories? er 96 ad 143 lo c. ID: Do wn 1491 1 ID: ID: 14396 14 9 Test Test oader Downl de nt ~l wn lo ad The process of overgeneralization in language acquisition is illustrated by the tendency of some toddlers Do b. er ID dd : Racial classifications are rooted in immutable biological differences (e.g. genetic distinctions) between human breeding populations. : ID nl oa that speech originated as a result of attempts to imitate the sounds made by animals. Do w Ytheory de r ut or Theo1heorythat manual gestures replacement unconsciously the latter in early hominids. tQ6'gue,eventually leading to the were imitated of the former byby positions and movements of the lips and 29. While one cannot have speech without language, one can have language without speech. Which of the following scenarios is NOT an illustration of this principle? Downlo ader ID: 14396 a. Sandrine sustained an injury to her vocal tract when she was an infant. While she encountered significant prejudice as a child due to her severe speech impairment, she has since become an accomplished author, playwright, and academic. r French has jved in Trois-Rivil~res his entire life andhe was raised in an Anglophone household. speaks Fyodor a noticeably anglicized accent because has never traveled outside of Quebec. He c. / While the early hominid species Homo habilis did not possess a lowered vocal tract, it did have an enlarged bra' Ith a well-developed left hemisphere, and therefore may have made use of a sophisti ed communicative system (e.g. a gestural language) . Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. . It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 3 : 14 91 1491 ID: Test \ Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 14396 Downloader ID: 91 14 : ID 91 st : Te st Te ID 14 ANT 253 RIF Test 18 (October 28, 2008) 30. Which of Charles Hockett's thirteen design features of true language (i.e. thirteen criteria for language) does the honeybee waggle dance lack? 6 14 39 14 : ID er ad lo wn Do 39 6 the capacity to refer to situations remote in space and time from their occurrence. 91 : ID 14 Do wn lo ad er st Te 14 Displacement - 91 : ID st Te : b. speech uses a small set of sound elements that form meaningful oppositions with each ID Discreteness other. c. Semanticity - the elements of the linguistic signal convey meaning through their stable reference to real-world situations. 6 39 : ID 14 6 er 39 ad lo wn Do : 14 ID er ad Te st lo ID : 14 91 ID Te : 14 91 wn Do st 6 Do : 14 39 wn ID lo er ad lo ad er wn Do ID : 14 : ID wn Do Zipf's Law is an explanatory principle of language change that posits that complex language forms tend towards reduction, abbreviation, compression, levelling, or elimination over time. 14 39 ID : er de nt Te ID : 14 32. Noam Chomsky has hypothesized that all human beings have an innate facility with transformational rules of grammar, which permit us to abstract the deep structure of a sentence from its surface structure. Which of the following is an example of this principle in practice? b. As was previously hypothesized by the Port-Royal grammarians, speakers of English are intuitively able to understand that the utterances "Neve is ready to mocK' and "Neve is easy to mocK' have essentially identical meanings, because both of them contain a proper noun, copula verb, and predicate complement. 14 : ID 14 3 96 Te st : Downloader ID: 14396 ID .s ut or on to 91 Speakers of English are intuitively able to understand that the utterance "Paul is a girl who loves sushi" contains a transgression of English onomastics, while the utterance "Lauren is a woman who loathes dim sum" does not. tu a. ader ID: 14396 Do wn lo Downlo ad er Speakers of English are intuitively able to understand that while the utterance "Uri is dying to understand" is superficially identical in structure to the utterance "Uri is difficult to understand", the former means that Uri is the one trying to understand something while the latter means that someone else is trying to understand Uri. 33. In an imaginary language, the form /jinal means "drop of water," the form lejinadel means "rain," the form /jinak/ means "wet," and the form /jirenak/ means "to wet." The forms /ji-I and I-nal, when separated from one another, are meaningless syllables. Given this information, which of the below statements is FALSE? a. ~ c. A plausible morphological rule in this language is that attaching the inflectional circumfix le- -del to a noun changes its meaning to "many of these nouns together." This is an isolating language in which the infix I-re-I is inflectional. This is an agglutinating language in which the form /jinal is a lexeme, and in which the suffix I-k/ is derivational. Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 4 91 14396 der ID: Downloa bu d Do wn lo ad dy . : ID Do wn lo ad er Downloader ID: 14396 6 c. 14 The development of language in the left hemisphere of the brain during infancy is called lateral~zation. st Te lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 m co 39 6 Te st b. st 14 91 In the nineteenth century, the revelation that the initial Ipl sound of Latin pater ("father") andpedem ("foot") corresponded regularly to the initial IfI sound in the English cognates father andfoot led to the innovation of prototype semantics. ID : ~ 91 6 39 14 31. Which of the following statements is FALSE? 91 14 : ID st Te Te st 14 91 der ID: 14396 : 18 (October 28, 2008) ANT 253 HIF Test Downloa ID Down load er ID: 1439 6 34. Noam Chomsky's first name is commonly pronounced [noum). The English word known is pronounced [noun]. Native speakers of English intuitively recognize, however, that Noam and known are two different words with different meanings, and they cannot be used interchangeably. For example, the sentences "The answer is known" and "The answer is Noam" mean very different things, even though they differ from each other phonetically by only one consonant. 6 39 : 14 ID Test ID: 1491 er ad lo wn Do Downloader ID: 14396 Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 Tes t ID: Why can these two words not be used interchangeably in English? a. Because the commutation test demonstrates that the word-final phones of Noam and known ([m] and [n] respectively) are suprasegmentally distinct. 14396 Downloader ID: Because [m] and [n] are distinct phonemes in English. Te st ID : 14 91 1491 Test ID: c. 14 91 Because Noam is a homophone of the word gnome, and the phones [g] and [n] comprise a minimal pair. m : Test ID: 1491 Te st 35. The Spanish words avia ("he/she prepares") and habia ("there was") are both pronounced [a'bija]. In light of this, which of the following statements is TRUE? ID ID : 14 91 96 143 r ID: co ade st nlo 39 6 Te Dow er ID : 14 dd y. In Spanish, [v] and [b] are distinct allophones of a single phoneme. The word avia begins with an open back vowel, while the word habia begins with a glottal fricative consonant. lo ad er : 14 39 6 Te st ID : 14 91 : ID 6 39 Tes t ID: 149 1 Dow ade nlo er Test ID: 1491 /35 ut or 149 1 14 on t 96 33 ID: ad 143 Test TOTAL: Tes ID : r ID: ade 1 149 t ID: st nlo SECTION I: SECTION 11: Te Dow o. st 14 91 Do wn ID ud en tb u wn lo Do ad Both words begin with the vowel [a]. 143 lo Do 96 143 wn r ID: 96 r ID: ade nlo Dow st Te : ID 91 14 t ID: 149 1 Tes er ID: 14396 Download Test ID: 1491 Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2012 for the course ANT 253 taught by Professor Danesi during the Fall '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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