ANT253H1_08FALL1_689

ANT253H1_08FALL1_689 - Down load er ID: 1439 6 ANT 253 H1F...

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Unformatted text preview: Down load er ID: 1439 6 ANT 253 H1F Test 1A (October 21, 2008) 96 143 r ID: ade nlo Dow FAMILY NAME GIVEN NAME STUDENT ID# 1 ID 87 : st Te E-MAIL ADDRESS 96 143 nlo ade r ID: Dow r ID: 143 96 ade nlo Dow nlo ade r ID: 143 96 Dow The following questions are based on the material covered in chapters 1 through 4 of the course textbook. Please clearly indicate your answer in ink. If you use pencil, you will be forbidden from contesting your mark, even if an arithmetic error was made in its calculation. Do wn lo ad er 14 39 6 er Do wn lo ad Test ID: 871 ID : 14 39 6 ID : Section I. 1. T True or False (25 marks) According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the Egyptian king Psamtik ordered a shepherd to nurture two infants among his flocks, with the instructions not to utter any speech before them. The objective of this experiment was to determine the mother tongue of humanity. [See p. 58] 6 39 : 14 ID er ad lo wn m 87 1 Do Some speakers of English pronounce the word economics with an initial [i], others with an initial [ε], but both pronunciations are acceptable. This is an example of free variation. [See p. 92] st bu Test ID: 871 nt Do 871 wn lo 6 t ID: Tes 1 6 39 Te on 14 1 87 de 87 to : : 1 87 ID ID : st st st Te .s Te ID The sentence “There’s the weasel” has at least two distinct meanings. It can mean, “There’s the animal called a weasel,” and it can also mean, “There’s the person whom I believe exhibits the metaphoric attributes of a weasel.” This is an example of a distinction between denotative and figurative meaning. [See p. 106. The second sentence is figurative, not connotative, as the implication that a person possesses the metaphoric attributes of a weasel prerequires associations with cultural signs, archetypes, and tropes not inferable from a weasel’s physical form.] tu 5. T Downloader ID: 14396 A quirk of the English lexicon is that distinct words are often used to represent living animals versus those meant for consumption (e.g. cow and beef, pig and pork, deer and venison, sheep and mutton). This is an example of complementary distribution. [See p. 91] r 1439 4. F ad e er ID: load Down ID : 1 87 dd : 14 ID y. Te 39 6 co 3. T ID : The development of language in the left hemisphere of the brain during infancy is called lateralization. [See p. 12] st 2. T 1 87 Te : 87 : ID st Te 1 ID r de nl oa Do w : ID When the Port-Royal Circle advanced the notion of a “universal” grammar, they drew heavily from the work of the Indian grammarian Panini without citing him, which led to their eventual incarceration in the Bastille. [See pp. 32-33. The Port-Royal Circle’s innovation of the idea of a universal grammar was not related to, nor built upon, Panini’s work.] ut or st Ferdinand de Saussure proposed that the goal of linguistics be to understand the nature of the systematic rules that members of a speech community recognize as their language (langue), rather than on their ability to use those rules in conversations and writing (parole). [See p. 37] 7. F Te 6. T st ID : 87 1 Downloader ID: 14396 8. T The anatomical feature that makes articulate speech physically possible is a lowered larynx. [See pp. 5 and 63-64] 9. T The fact that the modern Romance languages (e.g. Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, etc) do not make use of the contrastive long-short vowel system used in Latin is an example of Andre Martinet’s Principle of Economy. [See p. 73] 6 er ID: 1439 load Down 10. T Sufferers of Wernicke’s aphasia can articulate words, but they have tremendous difficulty comprehending the meanings of words and choosing appropriate words with which to communicate their desires and intentions. [See pp. 13-14] http://www.oxdia.com Tes Oxdia @ t ID: 871 This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. 11. F The concept of Universal Grammar (UG) was innovated in the late 1980s. [See pp. 6-8, 32-33] It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 1 6 39 14 : ID Do wn lo ad er Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 ANT 253 H1F Test 1A (October 21, 2008) Nostratic is a reconstruction of a language that is hypothesized to have been spoken 14,000 years ago throughout Europe, the Indian subcontinent, the near East, and Northern Asia, and that may have been one of the original tongues of humankind. [See pp. 67-68] 13. F The concepts of core vocabulary, communicative competence, glottochronology, and neo-grammarianism were all originated by the highly prolific linguist Dell Hymes. [See p. 53. Of these four concepts, Hymes was responsible for only the second.] 14. F Some synonyms for the English adjective courageous include adjectives like brave, intrepid, and valiant, while some antonyms include cowardly, timid, and craven. All of these words, however, can be lexigraphically classified together because they share the semantic feature [+particle]. [See pp. 107-109, 97] 15. T The English words buses and cats each contain one root morpheme and one grammatical morpheme. Both root morphemes are free forms, and the grammatical morphemes are allomorphs of the same morpheme. [See pp. 98-101] Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 Test ID: 871 12. T Dow nlo ade r ID: 143 st Test ID: 871 m ID : 16. F The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is standardized such that one symbol is invariably understood to represent two distinct sounds: one voiced phone and one voiceless phone. For example, the first sound in kilometre, and the first sound in gone are both represented with the symbol [g]. [See p. 83] ID: 871 14396 Downloader ID: y. 39 6 Test co Cecilia sees a domesticated canine, points at it, and then utters the word “dog.” The animal that she is pointing to is a concrete referent, and the word that she has uttered is a sign. [See p. 105] 18. F Vowels are voiced in some languages, but voiceless in others. [See p. 89. Vowels are by definition voiced. IPA phones (e.g. vowels as phonetic units) should not be confused with letters. (i.e. orthographic units). The French word femme (“woman”), for instance, is pronounced [f εm] and thus contains just one vowel. (See also the annotation for question 35.)] de 1 87 : ID 1 87 : ID 39 6 st Consider the following dialogue, and then answer questions 20 to 25 based on its content by clearly indicating whether the statements are true or false: : ID r de 1 87 Dow nlo ade 143 Do wn lo ad 96 143 r ID: r ID: 96 nlo Dow er ID : 14 39 6 Jordan’s characterization of the police officer’s multilingual proficiency as “cool” is an example of denotation. [See p.106. A denotative use of the word “cool” would refer to the interior temperature of a http://www.oxdia.com refrigerator or a chilly October morning.] This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Downlo ader ID: 14396 Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 2 ade : ID 87 1 nl oa Do w : Oxdia @ ID 20. F st 871 Jordan: Dean: Jordan: Hey, man. ‘Sup? I was stopped by this woman police officer on my way to work. She gave me a ticket for a broken tail light. Did she have bright red hair? Actually, yeah. I think I was stopped by her last week. She sure likes to talk about herself, eh? Yeah, she kept going on and on about the fact that she can write tickets in sixteen different languages. Dude, that’s actually pretty cool. Oh, I know. Anyway, I gotta run. Ciao! Later, man. Te t ID: Tes Jordan: Dean: Jordan: Dean: ut or Dean: Jordan: Dean: st 39 6 Te 14 on ID : 1 87 14 wn lo ad er : ID st Te Te .s tu The meaning of the word aquamarine is included in the meaning of the word blue, just as the meaning of the word beagle is included in the meaning of the word dog. Both of these examples are instances of antonymy. [See p. 110-111] to Test ID: 871 Do st Do 871 Test ID: 19. F Downloader ID: 14396 nt wn lo ad e bu r ID : dd 14 17. T Te 87 1 96 ANT 253 H1F Test 1A (October 21, 2008) 87 1 21. F Test ID: 871 Dean’s reference to the police officer who ticketed him as “this woman police officer” is an example of gender-neutral locution in modern English. [See p. 51. Dean’s locution implies that police officers are generically male (i.e. police officers are presupposed to be men, so women police officers must be explicitly adjectivized as such). Contrast this with the infrequency, and indeed abnormalcy, of such utterances as “A man police officer was patrolling the highway.”] Test ID: 871 22. F Both Dean and Jordan exhibit a masterful command of a highly formal register of English. [See pp. 54-55] Test ID: 871 143 Dow 23. T nlo 96 r ID: ade Jordan’s salutation “‘Sup?” is a blend of three words “What”, “is”, and “up”, and is therefore an example of George Kingsley Zipf’s Principle of Least Effort (also known as Zipf’s Law). [See p. 96 for blends, pp. 4647 and elsewhere throughout the book and lectures for Zipf’s Law.] Te st ID : 87 1 Downloader ID: 14396 co m Jordan’s question about the police officer’s propensity to talk about herself is unintelligible. As Michael Halliday might say, Jordan’s use of the pronoun “she” is non-systemic, as language forms are dependent on sentences rather than texts. Hence, Dean cannot be expected to understand who is being referenced. [See p. 40] ID : dd 14 y. 39 6 st ID : 87 1 25. F Test ID: 871 Multiple Choice (10 marks) ad e bu r Section II. de 14 6 : ID wn Do Do Downloader ID: 14396 39 1 er 87 nt wn : ad 6 39 14 : Te st ID ID er ad lo wn Do lo lo 26. Which of the following statements is FALSE? [Option (A) is the correct answer. It was Paul Grice who innovated the notions of quality and quantity as features of conversation (see p. 52). Options (B) and (C) are true (see pp. 64-68 and 37).] The process of reconstructing Proto-Indo-European (PIE) has relied heavily on the comparative analysis of cognates in derived languages. Cognates are words that have a common phylogenetic origin. 87 : 14 : ID er ad lo wn Do : 1439 r ID: 143 96 de nl oa ade Do w nlo r Basic to Ferdinand de Saussure’s plan for the study of langue was the notion of différance (difference, opposition), which is the view that the structures of a language do not take on meaning and function in isolation, but in relation to each other. This approach has come to be known as structuralism. ut or Dow er ID: ID 1 on 87 c. load 39 6 39 : ID 14 st Te 6 Down 6 ID st 1 87 Te : ID .s st to 1 b. tu Charles S. Peirce was an eminent philosopher of language who innovated the distinction between conversational quality and conversational quantity, in addition to founding the sociolinguistic study of pragmatics. Te a. 27. Which of the following statements is TRUE? [Option (B) is the correct answer (see p. 10). The answer can also be inferred from a process of elimination: option (A) is untrue (pp. 16-17), and option (C) is untrue as Dawkins is neither an anthropologist nor the inventor of cultural relativism.] a. Racial classifications are rooted in immutable biological differences (e.g. genetic distinctions) between human breeding populations. Test ID: 871 b. The process of overgeneralization in language acquisition is illustrated by the tendency of some toddlers to call all adult females “mommy,” or all adult males “daddy.” c. Richard Dawkins was an anthropologist who innovated the notion of cultural relativism. Te st ID : 87 1 Down load er ID: 1439 6 Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com ID: 871 This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. Test It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Dow nlo Test ID: 871 ade r ID: 143 96 Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 3 Te st ID : 87 1 Tes t ID: 871 24. F Dean’s valediction “Ciao!” is an example of a dialect. [See p. 54. A dialect is a variety of a language (e.g. Cantonese and Mandarin are two distinct dialects of Chinese), not an isolated lexical borrowing from a foreign language.] ANT 253 H1F Test 1A (October 21, 2008) Dow nlo ade r ID: 143 96 28. Which of the following is NOT one of the five frameworks included in Otto Jespersen’s typology of language origin theories? [Option (B) is the correct answer (see pp. 59-62). Richard Paget was the originator of the “mouth-gesture” theory, which is the theory described in Option (B).] a. The theory that language arose from the chants made by early peoples as they worked or played together. b. The theory that manual gestures were imitated unconsciously by positions and movements of the lips and tongue, eventually leading to the replacement of the former by the latter in early hominids. er ID: load Down st Te ID : 1 87 Dow c. nlo ade r ID: 143 6 1439 96 The theory that speech originated as a result of attempts to imitate the sounds made by animals. 29. While one cannot have speech without language, one can have language without speech. Which of the following scenarios is an illustration of this principle? [Option (B) is the correct answer (pp. 5-7). Language is a mental faculty, while speech is a physiological faculty. Javier lacks the physiological ability to speak; however, as a writer of novels and reader of literature, he is clearly able to utilize his mental language faculty. (See also the textbook’s discussion of American Sign Language on pp.74-78). Neither option (A) nor option (C) illustrates the critical distinction between these two capacities (i.e. one cannot deduce the above principle from either statement).] 1 87 : ID st Te oader Downl er ID: ID: 14396 1439 6 load Down co Downloader ID: 14396 y. 14 Fiona was raised in a bilingual household and can fluently speak and think in both English and French. However, she is having difficulty learning Cantonese because tone is not a contrastive feature in either of her native tongues. 87 1 dd : 87 ID : ID : 1 a. Te st st ID ID: 871 m Te 39 6 st ID : 87 1 Test Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 1 : 87 ID st Te Te r st ID : ad e bu 87 1 Javier was born mute. While he encountered significant prejudice as a child due to his condition, he has since become a published novelist and is currently working on his PhD in comparative literature. c. Ryoko has lived in Etobicoke her entire life and has never traveled outside of the Greater Toronto Area. However, she speaks with a pronounced Midwestern American accent because she spends most of her time watching television. 1 : ID st Te 1 87 : ID 39 6 st 14 Te to .s tu de Do nt wn lo b. 1 87 : ID r de nl oa : ID a. Discreteness — speech uses a small set of sound elements that form meaningful oppositions with each other. Test ID: 871 t ID: Tes Do w st Te ut or on 30. Which of Charles Hockett’s thirteen design features of true language (i.e. thirteen criteria for language) does the honeybee waggle dance lack? [Option (A) is the correct answer (see chart on p. 81). The answer can also be inferred from the fact that the honeybee waggle dance does not utilize speech.] 871 b. Displacement — the capacity to refer to situations remote in space and time from their occurrence. r ID: ade nlo Dow 96 143 c. Semanticity — the elements of the linguistic signal convey meaning through their stable reference to real-world situations. Test ID: 871 1 : 87 ID st Te 31. In the nineteenth century, the philologists Jacob Grimm, Franz Bopp, and Rasmus Christian Rask noticed that the initial /p/ sound of Latin pater (“father”) and pedem (“foot”) corresponded regularly to the initial /f/ sound in the English cognates father and foot. What notion made it possible to explain regularities in sound differences between certain languages with inferred phylogenetic linkages? [Option (A) is correct (see pp. 34-35, particularly the penultimate sentence on p. 34). “Duality of patterning” is one of Charles Hockett’s thirteen design features (p. 79), and “diachronicity” simply refers to change over time, which is in itself insufficient to explain (i.e. Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com than merely describe) the aforementioned kinds of regularities.] elucidate a cause for, rather This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 4 87 Do wn lo Test ID: 871 ad er ID : 14 39 6 ANT 253 H1F Test 1A (October 21, 2008) 871 Test ID: protolanguage diachronicity duality of patterning Te st ID : 87 1 a. b. c. er lo ad wn Do ID : 14 39 6 32. Noam Chomsky has hypothesized that all human beings have an innate facility with transformational rules of grammar, which permit us to abstract the deep structure of a sentence from its surface structure. Which of the following is an example of this principle in practice? [Option (C) is the correct answer (see p. 39). The answer can also be inferred by a process of elimination: option (B) is explicitly untrue (also p. 39), and the discussion of English onomastics in option (A) has nothing to do with Chomsky’s theory of deep versus surface structure. (See p. 49 for the textbook’s discussion of onomastics).] Downloader ID: 14396 Te st ID : 87 lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 Te st ID : 87 1 1 Speakers of English are intuitively able to understand that the utterance “Edward is a girl who loves sushi” contains a transgression of English onomastics, while the utterance “Jocelyn is a woman who loathes dim sum” does not. Do wn a. b. As was previously hypothesized by the Port-Royal grammarians, speakers of English are intuitively able to understand that the utterances “Yaron is ready to mock” and “Yaron is easy to mock” have essentially identical meanings, because both of them contain a proper noun, copula verb, and predicate complement. Dow nlo ade m r ID: 143 96 87 er ad lo wn Do ID : Dow : ID 39 6 ade r ID: 143 96 Do Speakers of English are intuitively able to understand that while the utterance “Lex is dying to understand” is superficially identical in structure to the utterance “Lex is difficult to understand”, the former means that Lex is the one trying to understand something while the latter means that someone else is trying to understand Lex. wn lo ad er ID ID : 14 y. : Te st 87 1 lo ad e bu r ID : 14 39 6 dd st 6 39 14 c. nlo co 1 Downloader ID: 14396 Do wn lo Test ID: 871 ad er ID : 14 39 6 wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 st : ID de r A plausible morphological rule in this language is that attaching the derivational circumfix /va- -lar/ to a noun changes its meaning to “many of these nouns together.” nl oa b. 6 14 er lo er ID: 14396 Test ID: 871 A plausible morphological rule in this language is that inserting the derivational suffix /-de/ to a noun changes its grammatical function to that of a verb. Do w a. 39 : ID ad wn Do Download on ID: 871 ut or Test Te to .s tu 6 6 Do 39 96 14 143 1 r ID: 87 ade : nlo ID Dow de Do nt wn 33. In an imaginary language, the form /rajin/ means “tree,” the form /varajinlar/ means “forest,” the form /rarujin/ means “branch,” and the form /rarujinde/ means “to branch out.” The forms /ra-/ and /-jin/, when separated from one another, are meaningless syllables. Given this information, which of the below statements is FALSE? [Option (A) is the correct answer (see p. 99). The circumfix /va- -lar/ is inflectional, not derivational. Option (C) is not correct (i.e. the statement is true) as the form /rajin/ is in fact a lexeme (also known as a root morpheme, p. 98), which can be ascertained from the fact that “the forms /ra-/ and /-jin/, when separated from one another, are meaningless syllables.” Moreover, the language is agglutinating because its words are made up of multiple morphemes (crucially, including infixes and circumfixes), rather than single morphemes in isolation (pp. 4748). Option (B) is not correct because it is true.] Test ID: 871 c. This is an agglutinating language in which the form /rajin/ is a lexeme. 34. Noam Chomsky’s first name is commonly pronounced [noUm]. The English word known is pronounced [noUn]. Native speakers of English intuitively recognize, however, that Noam and known are two different words with different meanings, and they cannot be used interchangeably. For example, the sentences “The answer is known” and “The answer is Noam” mean very different things, even though they differ from each other phonetically by only one consonant. [Option (B) is the correct answer. The information provided in the question suffices to demonstrate that Noam and known are minimal pairs, and that [m] and [n] are thus phonemically distinct (i.e. that the phones [m] and [n] are, in English, also /m/ and /n/. This is not the case in all languages). The answer can also be determined by a process of elimination: option (A) is incorrect because [n] is not a bilabial, and [m] and [n] Oxdia @distinguished segmentally, not suprasegmentally (p. 94); and option (C) is incorrect because the word are http://www.oxdia.com 871 Test ID: This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. Downl oader ID: 14396 5 1 87 Dow nlo Tes ade r ID: 143 t ID: 96 14396 Downloader ID: 871 : ID Te st 1 ANT 253 H1F Test 1A (October 21, 2008) 87 96 : ID 143 st Te nlo Dow : ID 1 87 st Te Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 gnome does not begin with the phone [g] (and even if it did, minimal pairs consist of words, not individual phones).] er ID : 14 39 6 Why can these two words not be used interchangeably in English? b. Because [m] and [n] are distinct phonemes in English. c. Because Noam is a homophone of the word gnome, and the phones [g] and [n] comprise a minimal pair. Do wn lo ad Because the commutation test demonstrates that the word-final phones of Noam and known ([m] and [n] respectively) are suprasegmentally distinct bilabial nasals. Test a. ID: 871 Do wn lo ad st Te 35. The Spanish words bacilo (“microorganism”) and vacilo (“I hesitate”) are both pronounced [ba'silo]. In light of this, which of the following statements is true? [Option (C) is the correct answer. As the first sentence of the question states, the words bacilo and vacilo are both pronounced [ba'silo]. In other words, both words begin with the phone [b], which is a bilabial consonant. The key to this question is an understanding of the fact that the IPA is standardized such that one symbol corresponds to one, and only one, sound, in all languages (see p. 83, i.e. in IPA notation, the symbol [b] is always a voiced, bilabial, plosive consonant). Spelling conventions may be unreflective of pronunciation (e.g. the English word philosophy begins with [f], not [p]); IPA notation, however, is always consistent.] er 14 : : ID ID 87 39 6 1 Down load 1439 6 m Do wn lo ad ID 14 co : 39 load er ID: : ID 87 1 : ID bu r ad e ID : 14 39 6 6 ID : on to .s 96 : r ID: st ade 143 r /35 Do w nl oa de ut or TOTAL: er Te Dow nlo SECTION I: SECTION II: ad 1 39 6 tu 14 lo nt ad er ID : wn 87 de Do Do wn lo Do ID 871 lo t ID: c. In Spanish, [b] and [v] are distinct allophones of a single phoneme. The word bacilo begins with a bilabial consonant, while the word vacilo begins with a labiodental consonant. Both words begin with the bilabial consonant [b]. wn Tes a. b. dd 14 6 st 1439 Downloader ID: 14396 y. Down Te 39 6 st 6 39 ID : er 14 87 1 er ID: Tes t ID: 871 Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 6 ade r ID: ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2012 for the course ANT 253 taught by Professor Danesi during the Fall '08 term at University of Toronto.

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