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Unformatted text preview: 6 39 14 : ID ad er lo wn Do : ID 48 18 st Te Downloader ID: 14396 GIVEN NAME STUDENT ID# Down FAMILY NAME load er ID: 1439 6 ANT 253 H1F Language and Society Test 1 (20 October 2009) — VERSION A E-MAIL ADDRESS Downloader ID: 14396 Downl oader Te ID: 14396 st ID : 18 48 TOTAL: /35 All of the following questions are based on the material covered in chapters 1, 2, and 4 of the course textbook. Please clearly indicate whether each statement is true or false in ink. If you use pencil, you will not be permitted to contest your mark, even if an arithmetic error was made in its calculation. Good luck! om tb ud dy .c Te ID: 1848 14 Test 39 6 — The form /terfim / means “written text.” — The form /reskis/ means “flower.” — The form /florren/ means “water droplet.” : ID ID er ad lo wn : Do r 6 39 14 st ID : 18 48 Do Te de n wn lo ad e — The form /terjofim / means “to write.” — The form /resjokis/ means “to flower.” — The form /florjoren/ means “to water.” : ID ID : .s 18 48 18 tu st ID : 48 — The form /laterfimor/ means “book collection.” — The form /lareskisor/ means “garden.” — The form /laflorrenor/ means “pool of water.” Te 6 39 14 er ad lo wn Do st er ID : 14 39 6 Te 6 ad 39 lo st ID : 18 48 14 wn Te st : ID 18 48 96 143 1848 Test ID: r ID: ade nlo Dow on Do Te to — When separated from one another, the forms /ter-/ and /-fim / are meaningless syllables. — When separated from one another, the forms /res-/ and /-kis/ are meaningless syllables. — When separated from one another, the forms /flor-/ and /-ren/ are meaningless syllables. /terfim/ is a grammatical morpheme. [See p. 98. This is a root morpheme, also known as a lexeme.] 2. T Based on a segmentational analysis of the above data, it’s reasonable to infer that this is an agglutinating language. [See pp. 47-48 and 101-102 for the definition of an agglutinating language, and p. 99 for the textbook’s discussion of segmentation as a method of morphological analysis. The language is agglutinating because its words are made up of multiple morphemes (crucially, including infixes and circumfixes), rather than single morphemes in isolation.] ID: r ad e wn lo Do Test ID: 1848 Test ID : or 1. F ut st ID : 18 48 An anthropologist who has been collecting linguistic data on an obscure language has finally returned to Toronto after a year in the field, and is now beginning to analyze her findings. Carefully consider the following data set and then answer questions 1 to 5 by clearly indicating whether the statements are true or false: 1848 /-jo-/ is a derivational infix. [See pp. 99-100] 4. F If we also know that the form /porvim/ means “weight,” the above findings suggest that the form /porjovim/ might mean “to wait.” [The affixation of the derivational infix /-jo-/ would produce a form that means “to weigh.” See pp. 98-100 for examples of this kind of analysis.] 5. T A plausible morphological rule in this language is that attaching the inflectional circumfix /la- -or/ to a noun changes its meaning to “many of these nouns together.” [See pp. 98-100 for examples of this kind of analysis, and pp. 99-100 for the textbook’s discussion of inflection and affixation.] Do 3. T wn lo er ad : ID 14 39 6 Te st ID : 18 48 Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com Te st ID : 18 48 This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. Test ID: 1848 It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 1 Test ID: 1848 ID Test : ID st Te Downl oader ID: 14396 Test ID: 1848 6 : ID 14 39 er ad lo Do Down load er ID: wn 1439 6 Te st ID : 18 48 6 : ID 39 14 er ad 18 48 lo wn Do ANT 253 H1F Language and Society Test 1 (20 October 2009) — VERSION A Te st ID : 6 Down load er ID: 1439 Consider the following dialogue, and then answer questions 6 to 10 based on its content by clearly indicating whether the statements are true or false: Cassandra: Priam: Test Cassandra: Test Priam: 96 143 st ID: Te st ID : 18 lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 14 Do wn 39 6 tb ud dy .c 48 Te 1848 Priam’s characterization of the new restaurant as “slick” is an example of denotation. [See p. 106 for the definition of denotation. A denotative use of the word “slick” would refer to the texture of oil or hair gel.] der 6. F loa : 18 48 Cassandra: Priam: Cassandra: Priam: Down ID ID: 1848 ID: om Downloader ID: 14396 Hi, dad. Hey, how’s my favourite daughter today? Listen, I gotta run. I’m gonna be late for work. But let’s grab dinner at that slick new restaurant across town tonight if you’re up for it. Dinner sounds cool. But I don’t know if we should eat at the new restaurant. I have a bad feeling about it. Feh, you’re just afraid to try new things. Look, if you go there with me tonight, we’ll go anywhere you want next week. I’d really rather not. But we’ll discuss it later. You sure, kid? Yes, yes. You’re late for work! Go! Right, gotta jet! See ya tonight. Test ID: 1848 14396 Downloader ID: Priam’s use of the word “there” in his second line is non-systemic and therefore unintelligible, as language forms are dependent on sentences rather than texts. Hence, Cassandra cannot be expected to understand what location is being referenced. [See p. 40] 8. F Priam’s tendency to utilize slang and blended forms indicates that he lacks communicative competence. [See p. 53] 9. T Cassandra’s final line contains both a locutionary statement and an illocutionary statement. [See p. 107] 10. T Priam’s second line contains an illocutionary statement. [See p. 107] 18 tu st ID : .s to Consider the following dialogue, and then answer questions 11 to 15 based on its content by clearly indicating whether the statements are true or false: : ID 6 39 14 Alexander: Test ID: 1848 Christopher: Download 11. T 6 ad e Do wn lo ID: 1848 Test ID: 1848 Alexander: Patrick: 39 er ad Test Christopher: 14 lo Alexander: ID : wn Dude, how do you always get better grades than me? I work like a dog, and you’re the laziest kid I’ve ever met. It’s because you focus on the wrong things. Like, when the professor said, “Good morning” the other day, you wrote it down. She said it with conviction! How was I supposed to know it wasn’t going to be on the test ? Anyway, forget it. Do you want to work together on the assignment? Is there such a thing as a voiceless vowel? Hey guys—sorry to interrupt. Don’t tell her I said anything, but I just found out that Laura won a Fulbright scholarship. Yeah, I read about it in the campus newsletter. Pretty awesome, eh? She said she’d take us all out for drinks to celebrate. Sweet! r Do Christopher: Te 48 on 18 or ID : ut Te st Test 48 de n wn lo ID: 14396 Do ownlo ader ad e r ID : 7. F 39 : ID er ad lo Do er ID: 14396 Alexander’s second line is meant to imply that the answer to Christopher’s question (“Do you want to work together on the assignment?”) is identical to the answer to his own question (“Is there such a thing as a voiceless vowel?”). The answer is therefore “No.” [The answer to the question “Is there such a thing as a voiceless vowel?” is indeed “No.” See p. 89. Vowels are, by definition, voiced. IPA phones (e.g. Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. Te st : ID 48 18 It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Downlo ader ID: 14396 Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 2 wn 14 6 ID: 1848 96 143 r ID: ade Dow nlo 6 39 14 : ad er ID ID: 1848 Test Do wn lo ANT 253 H1F Language and Society Test 1 (20 October 2009) — VERSION A vowels as phonetic units) should not be confused with letters. (i.e. orthographic units). For example, the French word femme (“woman”) is pronounced [f εm] and thus contains just one vowel.] 12. F Christopher’s use of the expression “work like a dog” contains an instance of suffix error. [See pp. 96-97 for the textbook’s definition of suffix error.] Downl oader Christopher’s final exclamation is an example of connotation. [See p. 106 for the definition of connotation. Christopher is expressing a comparison between the pleasant situation that he and his friends have found themselves in and the physical experience of “sweetness.” That is, the situation is so enjoyable that it feels “sweet” in flavour.] ID: 14396 Downloader Do wn Test ID: 1848 lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 13. T ID: 14396 8 184 48 t ID: ID: Te st Test ID : 18 Tes 1848 15. F The IPA transcription for the nuclear vowel in Christopher’s first word in this exchange (“Dude”) is [o]. [See p. 94 for the definition of a syllabic nucleus, and p. 88 for what the phone [o] sounds like.] 18 : ID Do wn lo ad ID r ad e 18 48 : ID 48 14 Te st 18 : 6 : : ID 39 nlo 14 Te st ID 6 er 96 143 r ID: ade Dow 6 39 ID : nlo ade r ID: 143 96 st Te : ID de n 48 18 wn lo Dow 14396 ader ID: Downlo The process of overgeneralization in language acquisition is illustrated by the tendency of some toddlers to call all liquids water, or all fruits apples. [See p. 10] 19. T The meaning of the word walrus is included in the meaning of the word animal, just as the meaning of the word penguin is included in the meaning of the word bird. Both of these examples are instances of hyponymy. [See p. 111] er ID: 14396 st ID : 18 48 ID: 1848 : ID st Te Down load er ID: 1439 6 6 39 on to .s Test 18 Te tu Download 48 18. T The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is standardized such that one symbol is invariably understood to represent one and only one phone. For example, the first phone in phobia, and the last phone in tough are both represented with the symbol [f]. [See p. 83] 21. F Eric Lenneberg suggested that there is a critical period for language acquisition. More specifically, he hypothesized that a person’s ability to learn a language fluently comes to an end at the end of infanthood, roughly around the time a child first enters kindergarten. [See pp. 11-12. Lenneberg’s hypothesis was that the critical period comes to an end at the end of puberty.] wn lo ad e ut r ID : or 14 20. T Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 Do 6 er ad lo wn Do : ID 39 14 6 22. F Test ID: 1848 14 er ad lo wn Do The sentence “Here is a elephant” contains a hiatus that violates the conventions of standard English. This violation illustrates the interdependence of phonology and morphology in language. [See p. 45] Do 17. T st tb ud dy .c In the nineteenth century, the revelation that the initial /p/ sound of Latin pater (“father”) and pedem (“foot”) corresponded regularly to the initial /f/ sound in the English cognates father and foot led to the innovation of prototype semantics. [See p. 34-35 for the historical significance of this study, which had absolutely nothing to do with “prototype semantics.”] 39 16. F Te om 18 : ID st Te Clearly indicate whether questions 16 through 35 are true or false: 48 Patrick’s line contains both a perlocutionary statement and a locutionary statement. [See p. 107] 48 14. T st Te : ID 48 18 Locke sees a domesticated feline, points at it, and then utters the word “cat.” The animal that he is pointing to is an abstract referent, and the word that he has uttered is a sign. [See p. 105. The animal is a concrete referent.] 23. T The English words garages and cats each contain one lexeme and one grammatical morpheme. Both lexemes are free forms, and the grammatical morphemes are allomorphs of the same morpheme. [See pp. 98, 101] 24. T Sufferers of Wernicke’s aphasia can articulate words fluently, but they have tremendous difficulty comprehending the meanings of words and choosing appropriate words with which to communicate their desires and intentions. [See pp. 13-14] http://www.oxdia.com Oxdia @ Tes t ID: This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 184 8 3 lo wn Do 143 96 r ID: ade t ID: 184 8 nlo Dow Tes ANT 253 H1F Language and Society Test 1 (20 October 2009) — VERSION A Downloader ID: 14396 25. F Racial classifications are rooted in fixed biological differences (e.g. genetic distinctions) between human breeding populations. [See pp. 16-17] 48 18 6 : 14 : 39 ID st ID Do wn lo Te er ad er ID : Do 14 wn lo ad 39 6 26. F The modern-day concept of Universal Grammar (UG) was innovated by Michael Halliday in the 1950s. [See pp. 6-8 and 32-33. UG was innovated by Noam Chomsky.] 27. T Deirdre was born mute. While she encountered significant prejudice as a child due to her inability to speak, she has since become a published novelist and is currently working on a PhD in comparative literature. This illustrates the principle that it is possible to have language without speech. [See pp. 5-7. Language is a mental faculty, while speech is a physiological faculty. Deirdre lacks the physiological ability to speak; however, as a writer of novels and reader of literature, she is clearly able to utilize her mental language faculty.] : 14 39 6 ID er ad lo wn Do wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 Do 6 39 : 14 ID ad er lo wn Do Tes 184 8 In the Southern United States, the English words pen and pin are both pronounced [pIn]. This is an example of homography. [See p. 111 for the definition of a homograph. The example here is an example of homophony.] 48 : ID r ad e wn lo 184 48 18 : ID st : Te st to 14 39 on ID : In contemporary Canada, residents of Vancouver tend to velarize the second consonant in the word Vancouver (i.e. [væŋ’kuvər]), while Torontonians tend to pronounce it alveolarly (i.e. [væn’kuvər]). This is an example of synchronic language variation. [See pp. 36 for definitions and 52-55 for further context. The example described here is variation that occurs on a geographical (and contemporary, or synchronic) rather than historical (across time, or diachronic) scale.] lo wn ad er ID : 14 ad e r 6 39 Dow nlo ade r ID: 143 96 wn lo Test ID: 1848 Some speakers of English pronounce the word environmental with an initial [I], others with an initial [ə], but both pronunciations are acceptable and intelligible to English speakers. This is an example of free variation. [See p. 92] ID: 1848 Do 32. T Test or 31. T .s 8 6 t ID: 18 tu Tes 48 de n John is learning English, and is having problems distinguishing between the meanings of the sentences “Elena ate a slice of cake” and “A slice of cake ate Elena.” This is because, in John’s native language, it is not word order but verb morphology that determines whether nouns function as subjects or objects in a given sentence. Based on this information, John can be said to lack grammatical competence in English. [See p. 103 for the definition of grammatical competence.] Do 30. T ID 18 14 : 39 Te st ID Te tb ud dy .c Speakers of English are intuitively able to understand that while the utterance “Gideon is dying to understand” is superficially identical in structure to the utterance “Gideon is difficult to understand”, the former means that Gideon is the one trying to understand something while the latter means that someone else is trying to understand Gideon. This illustrates Noam Chomsky’s hypothesis that all human beings have an innate facility with transformational rules of grammar, which permit us to abstract the deep structure of a sentence from its surface structure. [See p. 39] 6 29. T ut Downloader ID: 14396 Do Te st ID : om 18 48 28. F t ID: 33. F [s] is a voiced sibilant consonant. [See the last paragraph on p. 89] 34. F The Spanish words avía (“he/she prepares”) and había (“there was”) are both pronounced [a'bija]. It can be deduced from this information that the word avía begins with an open back vowel, while the word había begins with a glottal fricative consonant, each of which is a distinct allophone of a single phoneme. [As the first sentence of the question states, the words avía and había are both pronounced [a'bij a]. In other words, both words begin with the phone [a], which happens to be an open back vowel. The key to this question is an understanding of the fact that the IPA is standardized such that one symbol corresponds to one, and only one, sound, in all languages (see p. 83, i.e. in IPA notation, the symbol [a] is always pronounced the same way). Spelling conventions may be unreflective of pronunciation (e.g. the English word philosophy begins with [f], not [p]); IPA notation, however, is always consistent.] 6 39 : 14 ID er lo Do ad wn Test ID: 1848 Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 4 1848 ID: Test 6 39 : 14 ID er ad lo wn ANT 253 H1F Language and Society Test 1 (20 October 2009) — VERSION A Tes t ID: 184 8 Do 35. T Noam Chomsky’s first name is commonly pronounced [noUm]. The English word known is pronounced [noUn]. Native speakers of English intuitively recognize, however, that Noam and known are two different words with different meanings, and they cannot be used interchangeably (e.g. the sentences “The answer is known” and “The answer is Noam” mean very different things, even though they differ from each other phonetically by only one consonant). The reason that English speakers cannot use these two words interchangeably is that the phones [m] and [n] are, in fact, two distinct phonemes in English. [See pp. 37, 91-92 and chapter 4 passim. The information provided in the question suffices to demonstrate that Noam and known are minimal pairs, and that [m] and [n] are thus phonemically distinct (i.e. that the phones [m] and [n] are, in English, also /m/ and /n/. This is not the case in all languages).] Downl Te oader ID: 14396 st ID : 18 48 ID: 1848 48 Test 48 18 : ID st 18 Te Down load er ID: 1439 6 Do om wn lo ad er ID 14 39 6 ade tb ud dy .c er : 14 39 6 ad e r ID ID st Te wn lo Test 6 39 : er 14 ID ad lo wn ID: 14396 48 : ID st Down load er ID: 8 6 : ID wn lo ad er ID : 14 39 6 ID : r ad e wn lo Do Do ut or on 184 1439 st t ID: ID: 1848 Te Tes to .s Downloader Test Te tu Do de n 48 18 Do : ID Test ID: 1848 ID: 1848 6 ad 48 lo 18 wn : Do 96 143 r ID: nlo 39 14 39 6 Te Dow 14 st ID : : st Te : ID 48 18 Te st ID : 18 48 Te st ID : 48 18 Oxdia @ http://www.oxdia.com Te st ID : 18 48 This item is shared by the uploader to help you in your studies. ID: 14396 It is copyrighted by the creator (copyright owner) of the content. Distribution is prohibited without permission from the copyright owner. Solution (if any) is NOT audited, so use at your discretion. 5 18 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2012 for the course ANT 253 taught by Professor Danesi during the Fall '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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