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Lecture Notes 1.4

Lecture Notes 1.4 - The Shoulder Preliminaries What kind of...

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1 The Shoulder 2 Preliminaries What kind of joint?
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2 3 Preliminaries What kind of joint? Ball and socket What degrees of freedom (3D)? 4 Preliminaries What kind of joint? Ball and socket What degrees of freedom (3D)? Mx, My Mz And what reactions?
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3 5 Preliminaries What kind of joint? Ball and socket What degrees of freedom (3D)? Mx, My Mz And what reactions? Fx, Fy, Fz 6 Part of “Actual” shoulder joint
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4 7 Lateral View of Shoulder Joint 8
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5 9 “Shoulder Joint” is actually 3 joints Glenohumeral Acromioclavicular – “Plane” joint Sternoclavicular – “Saddle” joint 10
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6 11 Protraction (abduction) of the scapula: laterally and anterior movement along the chest wall. Muscles: serratus anterior is the prime mover. Pectoralis minor and major, the latter acting through the humerus, may assist (act as synergists). Retraction/adduction of the scapula: The scapula is moved posteriorly and medially along the chest wall. Muscles: rhomboideus major, minor, and trapezius are the prime movers. The muscles that protract and retract the scapula are antagonistic, that is, they have opposed actions. Used together, they fix the scapula in space to provide a fulcrum from which to move the (lever) arm. http://www.med.umich.edu/lrc/coursepages/M1/anatomy/html/modules/upper_limb_module/upper_limb_03.html 12 Scapular Elevation and Depression: Elevation of the scapula moves the scapula superiorly. It is not synonymous with upward rotation of the scapula Muscles: levator scapulae and the upper fibers of trapezius. Depression of the scapula moves the scapula inferiorly. It is not synonymous with downward rotation of the scapula. Muscles: pectoralis minor, the lower fibers of trapezius, subclavius (through clavicle), and latissimus dorsi (through the humerus). http://www.med.umich.edu/lrc/coursepages/M1/anatomy/html/modules/upper_limb_module/upper_limb_03.html
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7 13 Anterior Posterior 14 The scapula can pivot on its attachment to the clavicle, and rotate upward. This is also called upward rotation of the glenoid fossa, and it is an essential motion for completing abduction of the arm. Muscles: trapezius and serratus anterior are synergists. http://www.med.umich.edu/lrc/coursepages/M1/anatomy/html/modules/upper_limb_module/upper_limb_03.html
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8 15 16
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9 17 ABDUCTION/ADDUCTION Abduction of the arm is also called abduction of/at the shoulder. This motion actually can be divided into two motions: true abduction of the arm at the shoulder and upward rotation of the scapula. Muscles: supraspinatus (initiates abduction - first 15 degrees), deltoid (up to 90 degrees), trapezius and serratus anterior (scapular rotation, for abduction beyond 90 degrees).
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