Lec03EukaryoticCell-1

Lec03EukaryoticCell-1 - Announcements Lab manual is...

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Unformatted text preview: Announcements Lab manual is available in bookstore Course schedule and lab study guides on web page have been updated Eukaryotic cell 1) Review of haploid, diploid, mitosis and meiosis (for relevant reading, see Campbell pp. 218-220 and 238-247) 2) Overview of sexual life cycles 3) Components of the eukaryotic cell 4) Overview of plant tissues Fundamentals Genes are DNA sequences that code for proteins Proteins catalyze reactions and make up structures Thus genes indirectly control every reaction and structure making up a cell Genes are carried together on chromosomes Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cell wall? Yes Plants-Yes, Animals-No Plasma membrane? Yes Yes DNA? Yes Yes Organelles? Yes Yes Ribosomes? Yes Yes Membrane-enclosed organelles? No Yes Nucleus? No (Instead, DNA is in a nucleoid region and in plasmids) Yes Size? Smaller (1-10 microns) Larger (10-100 microns) Other big difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA Eukaryotic genes are spread among multiple chromosomes. Almost all eukaryotic organisms are diploid at some stage in their life cycle. This means that they have two copies of each chromosome - one from mom and one from dad. Thus they also have two copies of each gene. Figure 13.x2 Human female chromosomes. Figure 13.x3 Human female chromosomes. Human bodies are diploid (2n=46 chromosomes. Human gametes, i.e. sperm and eggs, are haploid (n=23 chromosomes). Note: the human DNA shown here is in the form of separate chromosomes, rather than condensed into a nucleus. The chromosomes are arranged into homologous pairs . Figure 12.1 Cell division via mitosis. Note how the DNA begins as an amorphous mass, separates into chromosomes during cell division, and then condenses again into a nucleus. Mitosis results in two identical daughter cells. Figure 12.6 Cell division via mitosis. Figure 12.6 Cell division via mitosis. Mitosis is a process of cell division that preserves chromosome number (e.g., diploid to diploid, haploid to haploid, or dikaryotic to dikaryotic) and results in genetically identical cells Happens during a variety of processes, including simple growth, asexual reproduction Meiosis is the process of cell division whereby chromosome number is reduced by half (e.g. diploid to haploid) Happens during sexual reproduction Results in genetically variable haploid cells (usually spores or gametes) Figure 13.7 Cell division and chromosome number halving via meiosis. Chromosomes replicate once Cell divides twice Figure 13.11 The results of crossing over during meiosis: genetically variable haploid cells. Figure 13.9 Comparison of Mitosis vs. Meiosis. Key points Mitosis results in production of genetically identical cells Involved in growth, asexual reproduction Meiosis results in halving chromosome number, results in genetic variabilty A key step in sexual reproduction Eukaryotic cell...
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2012 for the course CHEMISTRY 1a taught by Professor Nitsche during the Fall '11 term at Southwestern.

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Lec03EukaryoticCell-1 - Announcements Lab manual is...

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