Lecture+13 - Psychology II Lectures 13 : Structure of...

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Psychology II Lectures 13 :
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Structure of Language Phoneme : the smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than random noise Phonological rules : a set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds Morphemes : the smallest meaningful units of language Morphological rules : a set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words Syntactical rules : a set of rules that indicate how
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Units of Language
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Language Development At birth, infants are “universal listeners” and can distinguish between all human phonemes, although this ability changes between 6-12 months of age
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Language Milestones As children learn grammar, they tend to overgeneralize rules. By three years of age, children generate complete simple sentences. By 4-5 years of age, many aspects of the language acquisition process are complete.
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Theories of Language Development Behaviorist explanations state that language is learned through operant conditioning and imitation, although: Criticisms of behaviorist explanations : parents spend little time teaching language, children generate more than simply what they hear, and the errors made
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Theories of Language Development Nativist explanations: language development is best explained as an innate biological capacity Language acquisition device (LAD) : a collection of processes that facilitate language learning Genetic dysphasia: a syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure
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Theories of Language Development Other support for nativist explanations Songbirds who do not hear adult birds singing during a specific window of development do not learn to sing Immigrants immigrating after puberty show lower host-
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Theories of Language Development Interactionist explanations argue that social interactions play a crucial role in language Social experience interacts with innate, biological language abilities
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Language Development Fast mapping: the fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure Fast mapping is influenced by joint attention: when infants and their adult conversation partners share a focus of attention
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Bilingualism and Development Assignment 6 Imagine the following scenario. You are a recent immigrant to the United States. Because you are limited in your English proficiency, you are limited in your job prospects. You are also the parent of a 1-year old. What langauge - English or your native language - will you prioritize with your child, and why?
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Bilingualism and Development Prioritize English = 22 wouldn’t want child to go through same adversity/limit opportunities Important for child to be as fluent/proficient in English as possible Prioritize Native Language = 11 Important to preserve cultural heritage child will learn English in school, anyway
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I was a few months old when my family moved to the States from the Philippines, but they decided to prioritize English as my first
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Lecture+13 - Psychology II Lectures 13 : Structure of...

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