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ChemReview4 - Intramolecular Forces forces that hold...

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Intra molecular Forces: forces that hold together an individual molecule Stronger than intermolecular Inter molecular Forces: forces between individual molecules in a chemical sample Molecules remain intact. Changes occur among the molecules rather than within. Dipole-dipole forces o Hydrogen bonding F, O, N Great polarity of the bond Close approach of the dipoles owing to the small size of the hydrogen atom. London Dispersion Forces—London dispersion forces or van der Waals forces o London forces exist in ALL molecules but are the ONLY form of interaction in nonpolar molecules and noble gases. Ion-ion interactions Intermolecular forces based on attraction of opposite charges o Electrostatic Forces In covalent molecules, intermolecular forces are based on the molecule polarity A molecule that is polar overall will have a NET DIPOLE moment. Stronger Intermolecular interactions: Means it is harder to SEPARATE the component atoms/ions Means higher melting and boiling points Surface Tension is an inward force that acts against a liquid’s surface area from expanding. For a surface to expand, molecules must move to the surface, which takes energy to overcome intermolecular forces Capillary Action- Polar liquids also exhibit capillary action, the spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube. Two types of forces are responsible for this property: o COHESIVE FORCES : hold liquid together o ADHESIVE FORCES : hold liquid to another surface Liquid water creeps up sides of tube until limited by gravity. Roots use this! Adhesive force is stronger than cohesive force in this case!
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