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Lecture 1 - CNIT 17600 Lecture 1 Introduction to IT...

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1/17/2012 1 Introduction to IT Architectures & computing systems CNIT 17600 – Lecture 1 Lecture Objectives Understand the difference between architecture & organization Comprehend the many units of measure needed to intelligently AND objectively discuss IT systems Appreciate the history of computing and its influences to IT today Begin identifying the complexities of computing Begin building the knowledge necessary to design, build, manage, maintain, secure, and operate business IT systems
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1/17/2012 2 Why Study Computer Architecture? 3 •Computers and computing devices Increasingly powerful and increasingly complex Yet, easier to use •Acquiring and configuring these devices requires more knowledge than simply being an effective user of devices •Design better programs, applications, software, or systems •Optimize IT systems Organization vs. Architecture 4 •Computer organization Encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems. e.g., circuit design, control signals, memory types. •Computer architecture Logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer. E.g., instruction sets, instruction formats, data types, addressing modes.
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1/17/2012 3 Computer Components 5 •There is no clear distinction between matters related to computer organization and matters relevant to computer architecture. •Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software: Any task done by software can also be done using hardware, and any operation performed directly by hardware can be done using software.* Computer Components 6 •At the most basic level, a computer is a device consisting of three pieces: A processor that interprets and executes programs Memory to store data AND programs A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world
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1/17/2012 4 An Example System 7 What does it all mean?? Systems of Measure for Computing 8 Measures of capacity and speed: Kilo (K) = 1 thousand = 10 3 and 2 10 Mega (M) = 1 million = 10 6 and 2 20 Giga (G) = 1 billion = 10 9 and 2 30 • Tera (T) = 1 trillion = 10 12 and 2 40 Peta (P) = 1 quadrillion = 10 15 and 2 50 • Exa (E) = 1 quintillion = 10 18 and 2 60 • Zetta (Z) = 1 sextillion = 10 21 and 2 70 • Yotta (Y) = 1 septillion = 10 24 and 2 80
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1/17/2012 5 Systems of Measure for Computing 9 •Hertz = clock cycles per second (frequency) 1 MHz = 1,000,000Hz Processor speeds are measured in MHz or GHz. •Byte = a unit of storage 1 KB = 2 10 = 1024 Bytes 1 MB = 2 20 = 1,048,576 Bytes 1 GB = 2 30 = 1,099,511,627,776 Bytes Main memory (RAM) is measured in GB Disk storage is measured in GB for small systems, TB (2 40 ) for large systems. Systems of Measure for Computing 10 Measures of time and space: Milli (m) = 1 thousandth = 10 -3 Micro ( μ ) = 1 millionth = 10 -6 Nano (n) = 1 billionth = 10 -9 Pico (p) = 1 trillionth = 10 -12 Femto (f) = 1 quadrillionth = 10 -15 Atto (a) = 1 quintillionth = 10 -18 Zepto (z) = 1 sextillionth = 10 -21 Yocto (y) = 1 septillionth = 10 -24
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1/17/2012 6 Systems of Measure for Computing 11 •Millisecond = 1 thousandth of a second Hard disk drive access times are typically measured in ms •Nanosecond = 1 billionth of a second Main memory access times are typically measured in ns
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