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Lab%205%20-%20Unified%20Modeling%20Language%20%26%20Class%20Diagrams0

Lab%205%20-%20Unified%20Modeling%20Language%20%26%20Class%20Diagrams0

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UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE &CLASS DIAGRAMS  LAB 5
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2 HISTORY OF COMPUTER  PROGRAMMING Binary Programming. Strings of 1s and 0s that represent both data and  commands. Programmers had to keep track of where everything  was stored in memory and reference those locations  with binary code. Assembly language. Replaced binary codes with symbols, such as load  and store. Memory locations and data values were represented  in hexadecimal codes rather than binary.
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3 HISTORY OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING  (CONT.) High-Level Languages.  Fortran, COBOL, BASIC, C, etc. More English-like. Used variables and equations. Used GOTO statement. Jump from one part of program to another, generally  conditionally. Led to “spaghetti” logic. Led to projects that: Ran late. Came in over budget. Contained far too many bugs.
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4 HISTORY OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING  (CONT.) Structured Programming.  Built around units of code called procedures or  routines that have a  single entrance point  and a  single exit point. Routines were called and then returned to the  calling point in the main program, sometimes  returning values with them. Helped in reducing code complexity, enhancing the  maintainability of code, and allowing some  procedures to be re-used from program to program. Techniques are still used today. But projects often still had major problems.
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5 OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING OOP includes both data and processes of an entity called  an "object" in a single, self-contained unit of code.  All the reading and writing of (for example) employee data. All the things that could be done to an employee (i.e. hiring,  firing, giving a raise, changing any data values, etc.). Encapsulation. Encapsulated methods present a public interface to world. Outside code can only call the object methods. New programming languages were created. Smalltalk, Java, C#, and others. New systems analysis methods also needed. Unified Modeling Language (UML), a standard set of diagrams  for analyzing, constructing, and documenting software and even  non-software systems.
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6 ADVANTAGES OF OBJECT-ORIENTED  PROGRAMMING Improved Project Efficiency. Object-oriented projects tend to be completed more quickly  and for less cost. Improved Project Management. Once interface of public methods is worked out in systems  analysis, teams of programmers can develop code for the  object classes independently.
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