High fidelity patient simulation in nursing education

High fidelity patient simulation in nursing education -...

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Unformatted text preview: High-Fidelity Patient Simulation in Nursing Education: An Integrative Review AMY W EAV ER IGH-FIDELITY PATIENT SIMULATION (HFPS) — the use of realistic, simulated patients and clinical environ- ments in the education of health care professionals — is more visible in nursing education than ever before (Jeffries, 2009; Nehring & Lashley, 2010). This presents a challenge to nursing faculty: can they justify the investment of time and money necessary to train faculty in the use of HFPS and incorporate the technology into their curricula? To answer that question, it is necessary to examine the effect of HFPS on nursing students. HFPS provides opportunities for interactive learning that can be used in any nursing course. It can also be used as reinforcement for tra- ditional classroom lessons and as an adjunct to laboratory sessions. Because competition among nursing programs for clinical sites can limit students’ time in clinical rotations, HFPS has also been used as a supple- ment to those rotations (McCallum, 2007; Nehring, 2008). In a landmark study, the National League for Nursing (NLN) conducted a four-phase, national, multisite, multimethod project to design and implement mod- els for simulation use in nursing education (Jeffries & Rizzolo, 2006). Several tools were developed and tested in this study. Its publication resulted in the development of a simulation model and a much-needed upsurge of interest in the use of HFPS in nursing education. But does the evidence support HFPS as an alternative to clinical experience with real patients? This integrative review evaluates the find- ings of recently published research. Hands-On Learning, Real-Time Decision-Making Simulation makes for an ideal learning environment for nursing students: it mirrors the clinical setting and mimics patients’ responses in a controlled set- ting, without the risk of students harming patients. Unpredictable patient conditions can be included, as can the “patient’s” responses to students’ interventions. The theory is that HFPS can encourage students to push the limits of their abilities so that they can better learn what to do in a real clinical situation. Also, HFPS allows for the repetitive teach- ing of skills and concepts in a variety of clinical situations (Nehring, Ellis, & Lashley, 2001) and can be useful for students in need of remediation. It can also provide a learning opportunity for conditions that students may rarely encounter in a clinical setting. HFPS can be used across the nursing curriculum. In beginning courses, for example, it can be used to teach fundamental assessment skills by demonstrating abnormal physical findings (Nehring et al., 2001). In medical-surgical nursing courses, it can be used to teach stu- dents about drug and IV fluid administration. The complexity of the content can be altered according to the care setting, such as geriatrics, pediatrics, obstetrics, and psychiatric nursing. HFPS can also be employed as part of an exit exam from a nursing program to demon-...
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