Chapter_1_Introduction

Chapter_1_Introduction - Forensic Science The application...

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1 Forensic Science • The application of any branch of science to criminal and civil laws that are enforced by law enforcement agencies or other regulatory body in a judicial system. • Perhaps should be more properly called Forensic Science s because it encompasses so many disciplines What is NOT Forensics… 1. No instant results 2. No fancy cars 3. Few crime scenes 4. Accreditation and proficiency issues 5. Massive case backlogs 6. No fancy clothes 7. Educational requirements similar to those of a premed at a minimum with the trend towards MS and PhD
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2 What is the focus of this class? Criminalistics Criminalistics is defined as analysis of physical evidence for: 1. Identification 2. Individualization 3. Reconstruction These things are used to: Corroborate testimony Prove or contradict a point at issue Determine identity of a person or item Ultimately assist the tier of fact (judge or jury) to determine guilt or innocence History “But it is necessary, if the wound has occurred at the sutures, and the weapon has impinged on the bone or the parts about it, to pay attention and find out what injury the bone has sustained. -Hippocrates (460-370 BC) One of the oldest scientific institutions indicates that a medical school was established in Greece around 600 BC and its most famous graduate was Hippocrates (460-370 BC). His many accomplishments include the Hippocratic oath and works including “On Injuries of the Head” in 400 BC which describes how a blow to the head by a rock might be investigated scientifically.
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3 Paracelsus Philippus Theophrastus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim 1493-1541 Father of toxicology “All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Began the transition to modern medicine. Early Forensic Scientists Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853) – Spanish physician, developed reliable ways to test for poisons such as arsenic – Established the modern field of toxicology Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) – Developed anthropometry: method of taking body measurements to distinguish individuals, a forensic identification system Francis Galton (1822-1911) – British anthropologist that established individuality and permanence of Fingerprints Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) – Modern blood groupings: A, B, O and Rh Leone Lattes (1887-1954) – An Italian that developed simple method for determining the blood type of dried stains, i.e. serology
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4 Alphonse Bertillion 1853-1914 Developed a system of classification for the identification of persons Used to determine previous criminal history and results could be searched Ultimately fell into disfavor when is was discovered that measurements varied depending on who took them Replaced by fingerprints Also developed the mug shot and handwriting analysis Dr. Francis Galton (1822-1911) • In 1892 published Fingerprints • Developed Statistical concept of correlation
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Chapter_1_Introduction - Forensic Science The application...

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