This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Crime Scenes Start with E! Physical evidence: any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or its perpetrator. Perpetrator Evidence Crime scene Victim Crime Scenes Start with E! Physical evidence: any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or its perpetrator. Needs to be recognized as evidence first and documented (notes, drawings, measurements, photographs)!!! No matter how good the crime lab is the evidence needs to be collected! (properly) Preservation needs to be considered! The lab does science, not magic! 1 Can you? 1. Recognize a crime has been committed 2. Secure and isolate the crime scene The 1st police officer on scene is responsible Clear the room (eliminate dangers) and secure the scene; victims, (arrest) suspects, witnesses, etc. Medical need is given priority over evidence Isolate an area of sufficient size Keep unwanted visitors out (including your boss, the press, neighbors, lookey loos, etc.) Keep tracking of those people or vehicles leaving the scene Can you? 3. Evaluation What are we going to do and how are we going to do it? Walk through Crime scene boundaries Entrance and exit Document and photograph (don't touch anything) 2 Documentation Photography (still and video) Photograph before anything is touched or moved Photograph "primary" area as well as "secondary" area For close-ups, use ruler near item as scale Sketches Rough sketch to capture dimensions of scene and location of all relevant objects Use a legend in sketch to catalogue items Notes Note taking is a constant activity throughout Provide description and location of physical evidence; time collected and by whom Photography KEEP A PHOTO LOG!!! If any object is moved because of medical attention or even on accident document the move, photograph, and move on (life isn't perfect) Move from outside to in Points of entry and exit Photograph rooms not associated with the crime (you never know) What about the crowd of on lookers? 3 Photography Overall concept applied to the body, living victims, and evidence Injuries Items of interest Area underneath the body Positioning photos and close up photos should use a ruler 30% overlap of photos Crime Scene Photos 4 Sketches and Notes Don't have to be pretty Must contain the case number, location, time, and name of person recording the information 5 6 The Quest for E! Be methodical, systematic and thorough If possible, a single person should supervise to avoid confusion and duplication of effort Type of search depends on locale, size of area, and specifics of the crime Crime scenes are 3D so remember to look up Search Methods 7 What Type of E? Evidence to be on the lookout for depends on type of crime, environment, etc. Hit and run: Cross-transfer of evidence between car and victim On car-blood, tissue, hair, fibers On victim-paint, glass Homicide: Cross-transfer of evidence between assailant and victim hairs, fibers, blood, fingernail scrapings, weapon, bullet casings Burglary: Point of entry; tool marks, footware marks, fingerprints Typical E Biological Biological fluid: blood, semen, saliva Hair: human or non-human Bones and teeth Fingerprints Organs and physiological fluids: autopsy Vegetative matter Physical Fibers, fabrics, glass fragments, paint, soil Drugs Explosives and post-blast debris Petroleum products and residue: arson Firearms, ammunition, and gun shot residue Other Impressions: tire markings, shoe prints, depressions in soil or snow, bite marks Tool marks Serial numbers Questioned documents Digital evidence: computers, cell phones, etc From the massive to the microscopic or molecular level 8 Interesting E... Collect carriers of trace evidence Garments of victims and/or suspect Clothing should be isolated by person Vacuum sweepings of various locations in the crime scene for trace evidence Dead body Clothing, fingernail scrapings, head and pubic hair (standards and foreign), blood (DNA), cavity swabs (sex-related DNA), injuries (bullets, casting of impressions), hand swabbing (for GSR) Types of Physical Evidence From the massive to the microscopic or molecular level Biological Biological fluid: blood, semen, saliva Hair: human or non- human Bones and teeth Fingerprints Organs and physiological fluids: autopsy Vegetative matter Physical Fibers, fabrics, glass fragments, paint, soil Drugs Explosives and post- blast debris Petroleum products and residue: arson Firearms, ammunition, and gun shot residue Other Impressions: tire markings, shoe prints, depressions in soil or snow, bite marks Tool marks Serial numbers Questioned documents Digital evidence: computers, cell phones, etc 9 Packaging of E Package to maintain the integrity of the evidence Avoid cross-contamination; package items separately Examples of packaging: Arson debris: airtight containers- paint cans or jars Blood/bodily fluids: non-airtight container Druggist fold Wrap clothing items separately try not to disturb trace evidence Package sweepings from different areas separately Chain of Custody (COC) Crucial for court (it is what gets the evidence in) Every person who handled, transported or examined evidence must be accounted for Typically as a simple as maintaining a sequential log of who had custody of a specific item for what period of time 10 Standards and References Soil, hair, fiber, paint, bullets, DNA, etc. requires comparison with a "standard or reference" to determine if there is "common origin" Quantity and quality of reference standard increases the evidential value of crime scene evidence Substrate controls: sample surfaces nearby that are thought not to contain evidence Arson opposite of where the gasoline was poured (or believed to be poured) Evidence Submission Law enforcement agent or mail system (FedEx, UPS, USPS, DHL) that has tracking in place with required signatures Make sure you can mail your evidence! Live ammunition, flammables, explosives, etc. 11 Evidence Submission Must have some information in the box stating what it is (unique case identifiers), what test are to be performed, and what to do with the evidence when analysis has finished Typically standardized forms issued by the laboratory All seals must be intact and information must match otherwise the evidence is returned to sender Evidence Submission Evidence must be properly packaged to prevent harm to the examiner Syringes Knives Guns Biohazard material 12 Crime Scene Attire Clothing to protect you as well as the crime scene Double gloved latex gloves Tyvex show covers Tyvex suits Particle masks, goggles, SCBA, etc. Dispose of contaminated clothing appropriately GLP no eating, smoking, drinking, make-up Decon things that cannot be thrown out Legal Issues Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their person, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizure, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Allowances for warrantless searches: Emergencies To prevent immediate loss or destruction of evidence Search of a person and property within immediate control of the person provided it is made incident to a lawful arrest Search is made by consent of the parties 13 Ohio versus Terry McFadden, a plainclothes police officer, saw Terry and Chilton walking repeatedly in front of a store window, conferencing, and then repeating the behavior A third man, Katz, joined the two and the behavior repeated McFadden believed the three men were going to rob the store, approached the men, and after a short conversation frisked them finding two guns What do you think??? Ohio versus Terry 4th amendment prevents unreasonable search and seizure This is not violated when an officer stops a person and searches them without probable cause to arrest if they have reasonable suspicion they are going to commit, are in the process of committing, or have committed a crime Allows of quick surface searches and are immediately under the suspected person's control Everything is based on specific and articulable facts no hunches or gut feelings 14 Mincey v. Arizona Police have an undercover agent killed in the apartment of a suspect drug dealer Homicide detectives conduct a limitless warrantless 4 day search of the apartment Drug dealer was in the ICU center of the hospital where he was Mirandized and then questioned At trial it was petitioned that evidence was unlawfully seized Hospital statements were inadmissible Narcotics charges were upheld but homicide and assault charges were reversed Michigan versus Tyler A fire breaks out at a furniture store shortly before midnight After the fire fight plastic containers containing a flammable liquid are found An arson detective took photographs but no samples because of smoke and steam concerns They removed the containers and left after the fire had been extinguished no on was left to guard the scene 15 Michigan versus Tyler The next morning they arson investigators return to examine the building and remove more evidence About a month later state investigators went to the scene and took photographs and evidence as well Was the owner of the furniture store 4th amendment rights violated? 16 ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 01/31/2012 for the course CHS 3501 taught by Professor Perr during the Fall '09 term at FIU.
- Fall '09