Chapter_12_Crime_Scene_Reconstruction_Bloodstain_Pattern_Analysis

Chapter_12_Crime_Scene_Reconstruction_Bloodstain_Pattern_Analysis

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Unformatted text preview: 9/7/11 Crime Scene Reconstruction The method used to support a likely sequence of events by the observation and evaluation of physical evidence, as well as statements made by those involved with the incident, is referred to as reconstruction. Crime-scene reconstruction relies on the combined efforts of medical examiners, criminalists, and law enforcement personnel to recover physical evidence and to sort out the events surrounding the occurrence of a crime. One type of physical evidence that can help with crime scene reconstruction is bloodstain pattern analysis Bloodstain Patterns The crime scene investigator must remember that the location, distribution, and appearance of bloodstains and spatters may be useful for interpreting and reconstructing the events that produced the bleeding. Surface texture and the stain's shape, size, and location must be considered when determining the direction, dropping distance, and angle of impact of a bloodstain. 1 9/7/11 Bloodstain Patterns Surface texture is of paramount importance. In general, the harder and less porous the surface, the less spatter results. Bloodstain Patterns The direction of travel of blood striking an object may be discerned because the pointed end of a bloodstain always faces its direction of travel. 2 9/7/11 Bloodstain Patterns The impact angle of blood on a flat surface can be determined by measuring the degree of circular distortion. At right angles the blood drop is circular, as the angle decreases, the stain becomes elongated. Bloodstain Patterns The origin of a blood spatter in a two- dimensional configuration can be established by drawing straight lines through the long axis of several individual bloodstains. The intersection or point of convergence of the lines represents the origin point. 3 9/7/11 Gun Shot Wounds (GSW) A shooting may leave a distinct gunshot spatter pattern. This may be characterized by both forward spatter from an exit wound and back spatter from an entrance wound. Gun Shot Wounds (GSW) The location of injury, the size of the wound created, and the distance between the victim and the muzzle of the weapon all affect the amount of back spatter that occurs. 4 9/7/11 Other Wounds A cast-off pattern is created when a blood- covered object flings blood in an arc onto a nearby surface. Other Wounds Arterial spray spatter is created when a victim suffers an injury to a main artery or the heart. Commonly, the pattern shows large spurted stains for each time the heart pumps. 5 9/7/11 Other Wounds Arterial spray spatter is created when a victim suffers an injury to a main artery or the heart. Commonly, the pattern shows large spurted stains for each time the heart pumps. Blood Tales A pattern created by blood that is expelled from the mouth or nose from an internal injury is called an expirated blood pattern. 6 9/7/11 Blood Tales A void is created when an object blocks the deposition of blood spatter onto a target surface or object. Blood Tales When an object with blood on it touches one that does not have blood on it, this produces a contact or transfer pattern. Examples of transfers with features include fingerprints, handprints, footprints, footwear prints, tool prints, and fabric prints in blood. 7 9/7/11 Blood Tales Patterns made by drops or large amounts of blood flowing by the pull of gravity are called flows. Blood Pools A pool of blood occurs when blood collects in a level (not sloped) and undisturbed place. The edges of a stain will dry to the surface, producing a phenomenon called skeletonization. 8 9/7/11 Have Blood will Travel A trail pattern is a series of drops that are separate from other patterns, formed by blood dripping off an object or injury. Documentation Investigators should note, study, and photograph each pattern and drop of blood to accurately record the location of specific patterns and to distinguish the stains from which laboratory samples were taken. The investigator should create photographs and sketches of the overall pattern to show the orientation of the pattern to the scene. 9 9/7/11 Documentation Two common methods of documenting bloodstain patterns are the grid method and the perimeter ruler method. 10 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2012 for the course CHS 3501 taught by Professor Perr during the Fall '09 term at FIU.

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