Updated Final - 1) 8,6,3 Plato: Republic Book VIII (ideal...

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1) 8,6,3 Plato: Republic – Book VIII (ideal is Aristocracy – Philosopher Good - dominated by freedom and equality o unlike an Oligarchy where there is no equality - fairest and best possible regime – but not the one most wished for Bad - freedom dominates - self rule and TOO much freedom is not good as the control of the state is left to the masses o Full equality leaves potential for personal gain over public good = highly corruptible. Freedom emerges from lack of self rule Philosopher is just and Ordered == Opposite of Democracy Aristotle: Politics – Book 6 (ideal is polity – mixure) Good - rule of many is better than rule of few - Freedom is greatest and most appealing aspect of democracy Bad - Rule of poor and most likely unskilled and unfit to have total control of the state - Yet when the masses of poor rule, it is not good as they do not have the skill - opposite of polity Cicero: On the Commonwealth – Book III - wanted limited monarchy, knew that Caesars desire to make Rome great was patriotic and was most fit to be emporer BUT did not like his means of making it an absolute monarchy Good - people constitute the state and power is all in hands of the people Bad - rule in a the masses is just as bad as a tyranny – akin to mob rule bad - no true equality – no matter - democracy is where people constitute the state – akin to mob rule o –ideal common wealth = one filled with justice and law AND common good - - He saw that although the democrats were sometimes useful, when in their proper place they supported the popular interests, yet, on the whole, they were a very dangerous, precipitous, and violent body, continually straining after political dignities they knew not how to maintain; clamorous for perilous innovations which would have laid the glory of the state in ashes; rioting in all the reckless exasperations of schisms and factions; and eager for all revolutions which place honour, and authority, and wealth at the mercy of chance and confusion.
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2. Gorgias, 10, 1/4 In Gorgias, Socrates views rhetoric as a superficial form of flattery. He claims that it is the persuasion of the ignorant, by the ignorant, in order to incite pleasure among both the audience and the orator. Socrates illustrates the clash between politics and rhetoric though an analogy of the caring of the body and soul. Philosophy addresses the body and soul through health and politics . The body is cared for by gymnastics and medicine and the soul , which is nurtured by politics is further addressed through justice legislature . On the other hand, Rhetoric addresses the body and soul by seeking to gain
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Updated Final - 1) 8,6,3 Plato: Republic Book VIII (ideal...

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