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SI Combustion - mamas 0F TH u m 13 F 0’1 M ET 30 a i l...

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Unformatted text preview: mamas 0F TH u m 13 F 0’1 M ET} 30 a i l rm~w°mc 10 \\Motored \ \ \ \ _ l 1—] l_l \L | l ' —20 0 20 40 60 Spark m— [0” ATM. _l__ L__L_L _l_ J —20 40 60 CCrank angle, deg FIGURE 9-2 Cylinder pressure, mass fraction burned and volume fraction enflamed for five consecutive cycles' m a spark-ignition engine as a function of crank angle. Ignition timing 30° BTC wide-open throttle, 1044 ,.rex/u1III,¢= 0.98.4 " ' 1.0 3 ' Spark advance = 50 deg a“: ,2 o . d a s 2 .5 as “ 09 u u a E .‘_ 2 § .2 i 1 U 219mm 0 ' 0 -60 —40 —20 TC 20 4o 60 so 100 ’0 2° 3° ‘0 Crank angle. deg Spark advance, deg (“l 02) From: 9.3 (0) Cylinder pressure versus crank angle for overadvanoed spark timing (50°), MBT timing (30°); and . retarded timing (10"). (b) Effect of spark advance on brake torque at constant swd and (A/F), at ' wide-open throttle. MBT Is maximum brake torque timing’ SDimep (psi) IMEP (psi) WHAEPS figure 3~20 SDIMEP vs. IMEF for Sevens! Engines at Idle. Data {mm Table 3.2. SDlmep (psi) o . 30354045505560657075808590 10-90 Bum Durafion (degrees) Figum 3-21 SDIMEF vs. 10-90 Bum Dutan‘on fbr Several Engines at Idle. Data from Table 3.2. B-Gm188£?5 No swirl “ Normal swirl A High s‘wir‘l No stem” No swirl 10° 15° 20° I 7 25° Crank angle, degrees from ignition f FIGURE 9-16 ‘ Laser shadowgraph photographs of engine combustion process taken in single-cylinder engine with __ ~ transparent éylindc‘rhcad. From top to bottom: side‘plu'g without swirl; side plug with normal swirl; side plug with high swirl; central plug without swirl; two plugs without swirl.” Burning velocity, cm/s 50 45 4:; CD b.) LII U) C N U] N O 15 0.6 0.8 Propane (A) Gasoline (0) 1.0 ' 1.2 1.4 1.6 Fuel/air equivalence ratio q5 35$fi 343% 2|]% EGR 32$fi 31$fi 29% 22% ESE“. 28%3 25$% 25% 1* Thmttled 23% Iii-Dilute \ 22% 1Prcnjected Cmtmller 24% EGR ED% 1000 900 BUD TDD 600 EDD 400 IMEPn (kPa) 35360 5? 90% burn E 40 we 1: :2 g 20 10% bum 4:: _ E e U 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Engine speed, rev/min FIGURE 9-17 Effect of engine speed on flame-development angle (0 to 10 percent burned) and overall burning angle (0 to 90 percent burned). q5 = 1.0, intake pressure 0.54 atm, spark 30° BTC.20 ...
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