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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 1: Principles of Systemic Physiology Reading: chapter 1 Levels of Organization (1) Chemical Basic molecules of life are proteins, carbohydrates, fats and nucleic acids (2) Cell Functions: obtain nutrients and oxygen metabolism synthesis exchange of materials intracellular transport reproduction (3) Tissue Aggregate of cells and extracellular material. 4 main types: Muscle (contraction) skeletal cardiac smooth Nervous (transmission of signals) central peripheral Epithelial (exchange of materials) epithelial sheets (form boundaries) glands (secretion of synthesized materials) Exocrine (external secretion) Endocrine (internal secretion) Connective (structural support) tendons bones blood (4) Organ Two or more primary tissues organized to perform a function e.g. Stomach: composed of all 4 tissue types Epithelial epithelial sheet - barrier to digestive juices exocrine gland - secretes digestive juices endocrine gland - regulates exocrine secretion Muscle smooth muscle - stomach wall Nervous peripheral nerves - regulate contraction Connective structural support (5) Organ System Collection of organs that perform related functions essential to survival Circulatory System heart, blood vessels, blood Digestive System mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gall bladder Respiratory System nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Urinary System kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra Skeletal System bones, cartilage, joints Muscular System 1 skeletal muscles Integumentary System skin, hair, nails Immune System white blood cells, thymus, bone marrow, tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, spleen, appendix, gut and skin-associated lymph tissue Nervous System brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs Endocrine System hormone secreting tissues: hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, endocrine pancreas, parathyroids, gonads, kidneys, intestine, heart, thymus, pineal, skin Reproductive System male: testes, penis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, bulbourethreal glands female: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, breasts 6) Organism **Homeostasis = Dynamic maintenance of a stable internal (extracellular) environment within the organism- essential to survival of each cell- requires continual exchange of materials between the intracellular and extracellular spaces- each organ system contributes by counteracting changes of internal environment Factors that must be maintained: concentration of nutrients circulatory, digestive, muscular, nervous, endocrine concentration of O 2 and CO 2 circulatory, respiratory, muscular, nervous concentration of waste products circulatory, digestive, urinary, muscular, nervous, endocrine pH respiratory, urinary, nervous concentration of water and electrolytes circulatory, digestive, urinary, skeletal, muscular, integumentary, nervous, endocrine temperature muscular, integumentary, nervous volume and pressure muscular, nervous, endocrine defense against foreign invaders...
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