Lecture 30: Respiratory Physiology IReading: ch 13, section: intro, mechanics, pgs 461-472 (pgs 451-463, if using 6thedition) (pgs 459-471, if using 5thedition) Respiration- Respiration, the process of obtaining O2from the environment and eliminating CO2from the body, can be subdivided into 2 separate processes. internal respiration- this refers to the intracellular metabolic processes that take place within mitochondria, which use O2and produce CO2during the derivation of energy from nutrient molecules. external respiration- this refers to the entire sequence of events involved in exchanging O2and CO2between the environment and the cells of the body. It is composed of four subprocesses, the first two of which are accomplished by the respiratory system. 1) breathing- the alternate movement of air in and out of the lungs to exchange gas between the environment and the alveoli. 2) alveolar gas exchange- exchange of O2and CO2between gas in the alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries 3) gas transport- the transport of O2and CO2by the blood from the lungs to the tissues of the body 4) blood gas exchange- the exchange of O2and CO2between the blood and the tissues Respiratory System- the system responsible for the first two stages of external respiration. Respiratory Airways- these are the tubes that carry air between the atmosphere and the alveoli. nasal passages- nose pharynx- common passageway for the lungs and the stomach larynx- voice box located at the entrance to the trachea trachea- tube through which air is conducted to the lungs bronchi- division of the trachea into two main branches bronchioles- small branches of the respiratory airway alveoli- tiny, air-filled chambers (~300 μm dia) within the lungs that serve as the site for the exchange of O2and CO2with the blood. They form into grape-like clusters at the terminal
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