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LectureNotes_Reproductive - Lectures 44 45 Principles of...

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Lectures 44 & 45: Principles of Reproductive Physiology Reading: chapter 20 : introduction, male and female reproductive physiology through fertilization Reproductive system - Does not contribute to homeostasis - Is not essential for survival of the individual - Is essential for perpetuating the species - Influences individual’s psychology and emotional makeup - Has profound social ramifications i.e. population density and resource management Reproductive physiology - The interactions among the reproductive organs, hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and target cells of the sex hormones that collectively lead to the production and union of male and female gametes, and ultimately the production and nourishment of offspring. Primary reproductive organs (gonads) 1) produce gametes: sperm in males, ova (eggs) in females 2) secrete sex hormones: testosterone in males, estrogen and progesterone in females Secondary sexual characteristics External characteristics not directly involved with reproductive physiology e.g. body configuration and hair distribution Functions and anatomy of the reproductive tracts Males: 1) spermatogenesis and semen production: - scrotum and testis - accessory sex glands: seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands 2) deposition of sperm/semen in female: - penis - epididymis, ductus vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra Females: 1) oogenesis: ovaries 2) reception of sperm: vagina, cervical canal 3) fertilization (conception): oviducts 4) gestation (pregnancy): uterus, placenta 5) parturition (labor and delivery): uterus, cervix, vagina 6) lactation: mammary glands Chromosomal distribution in sexual reproduction Autosomal and sex chromosomes - males are XY - females are XX Homologous recombination occurs during meiosis Sex differentiation 1) Genetic sex : determined by sex chromosomes
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2) Gonadal sex: - SRY (sex-determining region) of the Y chromosome masculinizes the gonads by stimulating H- Y antigen secretion from early gonadal cells
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  • Spring '08
  • Fuller,Charles/Goldberg,Jack
  • reproductive physiology, follicular phase, female reproductive physiology, phase Proliferative phase

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LectureNotes_Reproductive - Lectures 44 45 Principles of...

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