LectureNotes_Renal

LectureNotes_Renal - Lectures 26, 27, 28, 29: Renal...

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Lectures 26, 27, 28, 29: Renal Physiology Reading: Chapter 14, pgs 511-553. (pgs 501-542, if using the 6 th edition) (pgs 511-553, if using the 5 th edition) Urinary System - major role is to regulate the volume, electrolyte composition, and pH of the internal environment. Consists of - pair of kidneys , pair of ureters , urinary bladder , urethra Specific functions - served by the kidneys include: - Maintaining H 2 O balance in the body - Regulating the quantity and concentration of most extracellular (ECF) fluid ions - Maintaining proper plasma volume - Helping maintain proper acid-base balance of the body - Maintaining the proper osmolarity of body fluids - Excreting the end products of bodily metabolism such as urea and uric acid - Excreting foreign compounds such as drugs, food additives, pesticides - Secreting erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production - Secreting renin, a hormone important in salt conservation by the kidneys - Converting vitamin D into its active form Blood - large quantities of blood enter and leave the kidneys each day . Blood enters the kidneys via the renal artery (connected to the aorta). Blood exits the kidneys via the renal vein (connected to the inferior vena cava) The nephron - is the functional unit of the kidney. A functional unit is the smallest unit capable of performing all of the tasks of an organ. Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons. Each nephron consists of a vascular component, a tubular component, and a combined vascular and tubular component. Vascular component - includes the: Afferent arteriole - brings blood to the glomerulus Glomerulus -tuft of capillaries that filters plasma into the tubular component Efferent arteriole - carries blood from the glomerulus; only arteriole in body post capillary Peritubular capillaries - supply the renal tissue; involved with exchanges with tubular lumen Tubular component - includes the:
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Bowman’s capsule - collects the glomerular filtrate Proximal tubule - uncontrolled reabsorption and secretion of selected substance Loop of Henle - establishes osmotic gradient that is important for concentrating urine Distal tubule and collecting duct - variable control of Na + and H 2 O reabsorption and K + and H + secretion Combined vascular/tubular component – includes the: Juxtaglomerular apparatus - secretes substances involved in the control of kidney function. Region where the glomerulus and the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle are close to each other. Region where ascending limb passes through the fork formed between the afferent and efferent arteriole. Renal cortex and renal medulla - two distinct regions within the kidney. . The renal cortex is an outer granular appearing area. The r enal medulla is an inner striated appearing area. Two types of nephrons can be distinguished in terms of their relationship with the renal cortex and renal
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LectureNotes_Renal - Lectures 26, 27, 28, 29: Renal...

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