05-Fats _ Oils

05-Fats _ Oils - Animal & Plant Fats & Oils (aka Lipids) !...

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1 Animal & Plant Fats & Oils (aka Lipids) Working defnition: Organic compounds (CHO) that do not mix with Water We will use the term lipids “mostly” Major food lipids ! Triglycerides ! Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K ! Cholesterol ! Some plant pigments like beta-carotene ! Flavor or volatile lipids (small molecules which are soluble in lipids) Roles of lipids — lecture topics ! Energy source ! Texture ! Essential ±atty acids ! Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K ! Cholesterol ! Some plant pigments like beta-carotene ! Flavor and ²avorings ! Heat trans±er (“±rying”) Caloric Values ! Physicists ʼ defnition: ! 1 calorie raises 1 gram o± water 1°C ! 1 kcal raises 1000 grams o± water 1°C ! (actually, modern physicists use Joules instead o± calories, but most nutritionists still use nomenclature related to calories)
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2 Carbohydrates 4 Kcals/gram Proteins 4 Kcals/gram Lipids 9 Kcals/gram So we can say that Lipids have twice the amount of Kcalories as Carbohydrates* or Proteins. *digestible carbohydrates Caloric Values Caloric Values ! Nutritionists use the term Calorie (big C) to imply Kcal ! Or in Europe - welcome to the metric system! ! 4.2 joules = 1 calories or 4.2 Kilojoules (Kj) = 1 Kcal = 1 Cal Recommendations for Fat Intake ! Recommendations of the USDA“Dietary Guidelines for Americans” ( fats ) ! Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol ! Eat less than 30% of total calories from fats and oils An example of ‘low fat’ franks ! 3% fat (by total weight) ! 22% of calories from fat ! Water provides no Calories, ! So water content does not affect %calories from carbs, fats and proteins ! But water content does affect %weight of carbs, fats and proteins
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3 Higher Math %calories fat = 2.5g X 9Cal/g 2.5gX9Cal/g + 7gX4Cal/g + 13gX4Cal/g %calories fat = 22% Role of Fats ! Energy source ! Texture Texture ! Textural modification in foods (Shortens protein network in bread & cake doughs) smooth and moisten (baking) crumbly textures ! Coatings flavorful coatings water resistant coatings ! Melting properties of chocolate melts in your mouth not in your hand Roles of Fats ! Energy source ! Texture ! Adipose tissue ! E.g. Marbling of meat ! USDA grading is based on fat distribution
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4 Prime Choice Select Standard Utility Cutter Roles of Fats ! Energy source ! Texture ! Essential fatty acids Essential fatty acids ! Are essential to proper metabolism ! Cannot be synthesized by the body ! Linoleic ( Ω 6) ! Linolenic ( Ω 3) Roles of fats ! Energy source ! Texture ! Essential fatty acids ! Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K ! Cholesterol !
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2012 for the course FST 10 taught by Professor Jack during the Summer '08 term at UC Davis.

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05-Fats _ Oils - Animal & Plant Fats & Oils (aka Lipids) !...

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