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07- Biotech - FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS TO OBTEIN PLANT...

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1 GM FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY M Cámara, 2010 SYSTEMS TO OBTEIN PLANT FOOD TRADITIONAL PLANT IMPROVEMENT PLANT ENHANCEMENT BY GENETIC ENGENEERY GLOBAL AREA OF BIOTECH CROPS IMPORTANT VEGETABLE TRANSFORMATIONS CASE STUDY: LONG LIFE TOMATO: FlavrSavr TM Bt MAÍZ ROUNDUP READY SOYBEAN GOLDEN RICE SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF BIOTECH FOODS GMOs REGULATION OGMs PRODUCTS ON THE MARKET FUTURE TRENDS IN PLANT FOOD IMPROVEMENT M Cámara 2006 SYSTEMS TO OBTEIN PLANT FOOD TRADITIONAL PLANT IMPROVEMENT PLANT ENHANCEMENT BY GENETIC ENGENEERY M Cámara, 2009 TRADITIONAL PLANT IMPROVEMNT CROSSING BETWEEN SPECIES BIOLOGICALLY RELATED TOLERANT PARENTAL Wild PARENTAL SUSCEPTIBLE Cultivated CULTIVAR RESISTANT Selection and crossing during generations Nieto-Jacobo,MªF. y col. (1999) Investigación y Ciencia En. 70-80
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2 FAO Statement on Biotechnology "Codex Alimentarius Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology" (Japan, march 2000) The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biotechnology as: " any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" . the definition covers a range of different technologies such as gene manipulation and gene transfer, DNA typing and cloning of plants and animals. PLANT TRANSFORMATION BY GENETIC ENGENEERY Isolation Genes Cloning Transformation Incorporation to plant AGRONOMICALLY INTERESTING GENS TRANSFORMATION Regeneration in vitro IMPROVED CULTIVAR - m. Biological: g. Agrobacterium . - m. Physico-chemicals: electroporation of protoplasts (poliethylenglicol/ Na Cl) - m. Physicals: shooting with micro particles with DNA Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as: organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating or natural recombination. As an application of modern biotechnology, this technique allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between non-related species What are GMOs? M Cámara, 2010 GLOBAL AREA OF BIOTECH CROPS CROPS AND TRAITS M Cámara, 2011
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4 MOST IMPORTANT VEGETABLES TRANSFORMATIONS GM M Cámara, 2009 CROP BIOTECHNOLOGY There are three main categories of biotechnology-enhanced crops in use or development. Enhanced input traits , such as herbicide tolerance, insect and virus protection, and tolerance to environmental stressors such as drought. Value-added output traits , such as corn with higher amounts of lysine for animal feed, or vegetable oils with increased levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Crops that produce pharmaceuticals or improve the processing of bio-based fuels. Today, crops in production are primarily those with enhanced input traits.
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5 IMPORTANT VEGETABLE TRANSFORMATIONS: Improvement of agronomic characteristics: Resistance to biotic stress.
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