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Study+Guide+Exam+3+Fall+2011 - Study Guide for Examination...

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Study Guide for Examination 3—Chapters 11-15 Chapter 11—Human Development Define nature and nurture, and explain the ‘debate’ surrounding them. Nature: Biology/genetic make-up Nurture: Environment Which plays the most important role in development? Define the 3 stages of fetal development, and explain how teratogens can affect development 1. Nature vs. Nurture: Which plays the most important role in development? a. Gesell 1900s coined term Maturation: Changes or growth due to nature. Things like rolling over, sitting, standing, walking, and running. 2. Continuous vs. Discontinuous a. Continuous: Development seen as a slow, continuous process. Many behaviors can develop simultaneously. Non-stage theories are continuous (Ex. Most learning theories like Watson, Skinner, Bandura) b. Discontinuous: Development seen as progressing through a series of stages. Milestones from one stage must be reached before progressing to the next stage. Stage theories are discontinuous (Ex. Piaget, Freud, Erikson, Kohlberg). 3. Stability vs. Change: Some behaviors and characteristics are stable as we age, some change. Teratogens: Chemicals or viruses that enter the placenta and harm the fetus. Ex: o Drugs Thalidomide: Sedative used a lot in the 1950s – 1970s. Causes limb deformities DES: Drug used to prevent miscarriages in the 1960s and 1970s. Causes fertility problems in female offspring. Cocaine: Premature birth, physical abnormalities, learning problems, seizure at birth. Alcohol: Mental retardation, hyperactivity, physical abnormalities Nicotine: Low birth weight, attention problems o Radiation: Causes miscarriage, slow growth, underdeveloped brain, and physical malformations. o Environmental Toxins: Mercury: Causes brain damage, speech problems, and motor problems Lead: Causes brain damage, premature birth, and physical abnormalities. Know how the brain and sensory abilities develop 3 stages of prenatal development: o Zygote: Conception to 14 days. Fertilized egg to about 100 cells that begin to differentiate o Embryo: 15 days to 9 weeks o Fetus: 9 weeks to birth Define “imprinting”, “critical period” and “sensitive period”. Know who Lorenz was.
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Imprinting: Certain birds and mammals form attachments during a critical period very early in their lives. Very available to form attachments. Critical Period: A specific time during which an organism has to experience stimuli in order to progress through development. More capable of learning a language than at other, later times—it just comes easier during this time. Sensitive Period: A time when a child is particularly receptive to certain kinds of environmental experiences. Related to critical period. Describe some abilities of the newborn and how researchers can test these.
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