Ch. 6 - Chapter 6 Learning Learning-A relatively permanent...

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Chapter 6 Learning Learning-- Learning-- A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience As Skinner said, we “profit from experience” As Skinner said, we “profit from experience” Past experience guides future behavior! 3 main kinds of Learning: 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning 3. Observational Learning 1. Classical Conditioning Learn signals that predict important events Ex: Learn that : 6 pm = dinner Lightening = thunder Cats = sneezing Rats = pain Tequila = sickness 2. Operant Conditioning Learn that our behavior has consequences Ex: Ex: Learn that: Learn that: Hitting brother = punishment Getting A’s = money Breaking curfew = grounding Speeding = ticket Cutting class = bad grade 3. Observational Learning Learn to “Model” or copy others Bandura 1961. “bobo doll” experiments. Demonstrated that children model what they see on tv/movies. 1. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1904) Russian Physiologist Studied Digestion-- Studied Digestion-- Wanted to know the role saliva played in digestion Wanted to know the role saliva played in digestion To get saliva, Gave dogs food To get saliva, Gave dogs food However, a However, after several days, dogs began drooling BEFORE the food Messed up his experiment~! So, b So, b egan investigating what caused the dogs to drool without food egan investigating what caused the dogs to drool without food Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning--Learning signals & associations What predicted the food? Sight, smell, sound of the experimenter, lights coming on in the room, etc. Pavlov’s terminology: **Important: Unconditioned = unlearned Conditioned = learned Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Anything that naturally elicits (causes) a response
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(don’t have to learn it!) Ex: Food (in Pavlov’s experiment) Also things like: puff of air, bacteria or poison, pollen, loud noise, etc. Unconditioned Response (UR) Natural reaction to a US *a reflex —don’t learn it, it just happens Ex: Salivation (in Pavlov’s experiment) Also: eyeblink, illness, sneeze, jump (fear), etc. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Stimulus that gets associated with a US –signals that a US is coming! Ex: Bell / tone (in Pavlov’s experiment) Also: lights, smells, words, flavors, seasons, etc.--anything that can predict an event! Conditioned Response (CR) LEARNED reaction to a CS ****Looks like the UR!!! So, CR in Pavlov’s experiment is: So, CR in Pavlov’s experiment is: Salivation!! TO PRACTICE: Pavlov’s experiment US ---------- à UR (food) (Salivation) + CS -------- à CR (tone) (Salivation) Why do you feel hungry at noon even if you’ve just eaten? Learn US ------- à UR (no food) (hunger) + CS ------ à CR (12 pm) (hunger) How does a baby learn lunch is coming?
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