This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Learning Learning-- Learning-- A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience As Skinner said, we profit from experience As Skinner said, we profit from experience Past experience guides future behavior! 3 main kinds of Learning: 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning 3. Observational Learning 1. Classical Conditioning Learn signals that predict important events Ex: Ex: Learn that : Learn that : 6 pm = dinner Lightening = thunder Cats = sneezing Rats = pain Tequila = sickness 2. Operant Conditioning Learn that our behavior has consequences Ex: Ex: Learn that: Learn that: Hitting brother = punishment Getting As = money Breaking curfew = grounding Speeding = ticket Cutting class = bad grade 3. Observational Learning Learn to Model or copy others Bandura 1961. bobo doll experiments. Demonstrated that children model what they see on tv/movies. 1. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1904) Russian Physiologist Studied Digestion-- Studied Digestion-- Wanted to know the role saliva played in digestion Wanted to know the role saliva played in digestion To get saliva, Gave dogs food To get saliva, Gave dogs food However, a However, after several days, dogs began drooling BEFORE the food Messed up his experiment~! So, b So, b egan investigating what caused the dogs to drool without food egan investigating what caused the dogs to drool without food Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning--Learning signals & associations What predicted the food? Sight, smell, sound of the experimenter, lights coming on in the room, etc. Pavlovs terminology: **Important: Unconditioned = unlearned Conditioned = learned Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Anything that naturally elicits (causes) a response (dont have to learn it!) Ex: Food (in Pavlovs experiment) Also things like: puff of air, bacteria or poison, pollen, loud noise, etc. Unconditioned Response (UR) Natural reaction to a US *a reflex dont learn it, it just happens Ex: Salivation (in Pavlovs experiment) Also: eyeblink, illness, sneeze, jump (fear), etc. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Stimulus that gets associated with a US signals that a US is coming! Ex: Bell / tone (in Pavlovs experiment) Also: lights, smells, words, flavors, seasons, etc.--anything that can predict an event! Conditioned Response (CR) LEARNED reaction to a CS ****Looks like the UR!!! So, CR in Pavlovs experiment is: So, CR in Pavlovs experiment is: Salivation!! Salivation!! TO PRACTICE: Pavlovs experiment US ---------- UR (food) (Salivation) + CS -------- CR (tone) (Salivation) Why do you feel hungry at noon even if youve just eaten?...
View Full Document