Ch.+8--Thinking+and+Intelligence

Ch.+8--Thinking+and+Intelligence - Chapter 8 Thinking and...

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Chapter 8 Thinking and Intelligence Cognition —process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and communicating Cognitive psychologists studying concepts, problem-solving, judgement & decision-making How We Think In general, we try to simplify Create concepts— mental groupings of similar objects Formed by definition Ex: chair Chairs vary, but we get the concept of ‘chair’ Organize concepts into hierarchies— broad categories Ex: objects to sit on Includes chairs, sofas, stools, etc. Prototype —best example of a concept of hierarchy Ex: we have a ‘chair’ prototype—probably has 4 legs and a back, but we also include other types of chairs in our concept, like bean-bag chairs We use prototypes to organize our concepts and hierarchies, especially when we rely on memory—our memory for objects tends to match the prototype, rather than the actual item This is one main reason why our episodic memory is so poor —we store memories to match our prototypes Problem-Solving Two main ways we solve problems: 1) Algorithms— step-by-step solution that guarantees solving a problem very time consuming exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms. 2) Heuristics —simple strategies that rely on trial and error Less time consuming, but more error-prone than algorithms. Also— Insight : A sudden, novel realization of a solution to a problem. Humans and animals have insight.
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Obstacles to Solving Problems Confirmation bias —A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias. Fixation —An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective Two examples: mental set— tendency to approach a problem in a particular way functional fixedness— think only of the familiar functions of an object. Using and Misusing Heuristics Representativeness Heuristic— Judging likelihood in terms of how well objects seem to represent a prototype Ex: short, slim man who likes poetry—is he a truck driver or a professor? Availability Heuristic —Information retrieved easily is perceived as more likely or ‘available’ We assume things that we recall easily are more common Judgment and Decision-Making Overconfidence – overestimating the accuracy of our judgments Opposite is exaggerated fear-- high fear over things not really dangerous (like flying over driving) Framing —the way an issue is presented 25% fat or 75% lean? Belief Bias — tendency for our beliefs to distort our logic God is love. Love is blind Ray Charles is blind. Ray Charles is God. Anonymous graffiti Belief Perseverence — tendency to cling to our beliefs even in the face of contrary evidence If you see that a country is hostile, you are likely to interpret their ambiguous actions as a sign of hostility (Jervis, 1985). Language
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course PSY 111 taught by Professor Cooper during the Fall '08 term at Miami University.

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Ch.+8--Thinking+and+Intelligence - Chapter 8 Thinking and...

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