Ch. 11 - Chapter 11Human Development Developmental...

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Chapter 11—Human Development Developmental psychology -- Looks at age-related, systematic, sequential, long- lasting changes Tries to answer the nature-nurture question nature = biology/genetic make-up nurture = environment Which plays most important role in development? Gesell (1900’s)--coined the term maturation--changes or growth due to nature things like rolling over, sitting, standing, walking, running 3 Developmental Issues: 1) Nature vs. Nurture (above) 2) Continuous vs. Discontinuous Development Continuous—development seen as a slow, continuous process Many behaviors can develop simultaneously Non-stage theories are continuous (ex: most learning theories like Watson, Skinner, Bandura) Discontinuous—development seen as progressing through a series of stages Milestones from one stage must be reached before progressing to the next stage Stage theories are discontinuous (ex: Piaget, Freud, Erikson, Kohlberg) 3) Stability vs. Change Some behaviors and characteristics are stable as we age, some change Prenatal Development Prenatal development progresses in an orderly sequence 3 stages of prenatal development: Zygote—conception to 14 days Fertilized egg to about 100 cells that begin to differentiate Embryo—15 days to 9 weeks Fetus—9 weeks to birth Teratogens—chemicals or viruses that enter the placenta and harm the fetus Examples: Drugs Thalidomide—sedative used a lot in the 1950’s – 1970’s Causes limb deformities
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70’s Causes fertility problems in female offspring Cocaine— Premature birth, physical abnormalities, learning problems, seizures at birth Alcohol— Mental retardation, hyperactivity, physical abnormalities Nicotine— Low birth weight, attention problems Radiation Causes miscarriage, slow growth, underdeveloped brain, physical malformations Environmental toxins Mercury Causes brain damage, speech problems, motor problems Lead Causes brain damage, premature birth, physical abnormalities Newborn Reflexes Infants are born with reflexes that aid in survival, but many disappear in a few months Examples: rooting reflex—infant turns head when cheek stroked helps to locate food Palmar grasp—infants grasp when palm stroked Babinski reflex—feet fan out when bottom of foot stroked Stepping reflex—imitates walking if infant held upright but can’t support body weight or walk yet! Testing Newborn Abilities Apgar Scale Newborns tested one minute and 5 minutes after birth rates appearance, pulse, muscle activity, responsiveness, and breathing uses scale 0-2 (2 is best) for each factor so total score can be 10 Testing Cognitive Abilities Investigators study habituation—disinterest in familiar objects. Infants pay more attention to new objects
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Ch. 11 - Chapter 11Human Development Developmental...

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