Ch.+13--Personality - Chapter 14--Personality...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14--Personality Personality--Your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, acting 4 Theories of Personality: (each tries to explain how and why people act the way they do) they 1) Trait Perspective ( Gordon Allport) Describes personality in terms of fundamental traits, or characteristic Describes behaviors behaviors Classifies people by type The “Big 5” Personality Traits (Raymond Cattell): introversion-extroversion emotional stability-instability agreeable-disagreeable conscientious-nonconscientious Assess traits with MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 10 clinical scales, 4 “fake” scales 2) Humanistic Perspective ( Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers) Abraham People basically good BUT: People need genuineness, acceptance, empathy to be “normal” Genuineness-- need to be open, self-disclosing, not fake -- need Acceptance-- need unconditional positive regard / -- need unconditional love unconditional Empathy -- sharing feelings & reflecting meaning Central feature of personality is our self-concept can be (+) or (-) ! can 3) Social-Cognitive Perspective (Albert Bandura) Personality shaped by external events & how we perceive them Also conditioning and modeling “Bobo Doll” Experiment *Basic Concept: Self-efficacy—belief in your own ability (efficacy = effectiveness) Also, Locus of Control 2 Kinds: External--perceive that chance or outside forces (“luck”) determine your fate Internal --believe you control your own destiny *do better in school, more Internal *do independent, cope better, less depressed independent, 4) Psychoanalytic Perspective (Sigmund Freud) Sigmund “The mind is like an iceberg” Personality is due to conflicts between aggressive, pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints against them Mind consists of 3 entities: 1. Id--has energy to satisfy basic survival instincts like reproduction & aggression reproduction Operates on Pleasure Principle--seeks immediate gratification *newborns governed by the Id *newborns 2. Ego--develops in childhood (2-3 years) 2. Ego--develops operates on Reality Principle--keeps Id in check to conform with reality Personality “executive” 3. Superego--develops around age 4-5 voice of reason / our “conscience” tells us how we “ought” to behave Id = “Devil” Superego = “Angel” Ego = keeps peace between the two Freud’s Theory of Personality Development 5 Psychosexual Stages of Development: *As a child develops, Id focuses on several “pleasure-sensitive” areas 1) Oral Stage (0-18 mos) Derive sensual pleasure from the mouth--sucking, biting, chewing, etc. 2) Anal Stage (18 mos. - 3 yrs) Pleasure comes from bowel & bladder control Potty training 3) Phallic Stage (3 – 6 years) Pleasure zone shifts to genitals Oedipal/ Electra Complexes Identification 4) Latency Stage (6 - puberty) Sexuality dormant, play with same-sexed friends 5) Genital Stage (puberty to adulthood) Develop sexual feelings toward others **Problem behavior occurs due to unresolved conflicts during any or all of the stages Develop Fixations -- --conflicts that keep people seeking Develop --conflicts pleasure in a stage pleasure Ex. Oral Fixation Anal Retentive / Anal Expulsive Defense Mechanisms--Ego tries to protect itself under stress by reducing anxiety Defense 1. Repression--put anxiety producing things out of awareness 2. Regression-- go back to earlier stage of development for comfort 3. Reaction Formation--make unacceptable responses their opposite 4. Projection--attribute own bad feelings to others Projection--attribute – Ex: thief sees everyone as a thief 5. Rationalization--make up explanations to hide real reasons for actions 6. Displacement--puts bad impulses from the target to something more acceptable like doll, dog, loved one--not authority figure who could punish acceptable 7. Sublimation--put unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable behavior Assessing the Unconscious Use Projective tests --try to see through surface to reveal hidden conflicts and impulses present ambiguous picture and have people interpret it will project inner feelings onto picture Ex: Rorshach inkblot test TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course PSY 111 taught by Professor Cooper during the Fall '08 term at Miami University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online