Ch.+13--Personality

Ch.+13--Personality - Chapter 14--Personality...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14--Personality Personality--Your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, acting 4 Theories of Personality: (each tries to explain how and why people act the way they do) they 1) Trait Perspective ( Gordon Allport) Describes personality in terms of fundamental traits, or characteristic Describes behaviors behaviors Classifies people by type The “Big 5” Personality Traits (Raymond Cattell): introversion-extroversion emotional stability-instability agreeable-disagreeable conscientious-nonconscientious Assess traits with MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 10 clinical scales, 4 “fake” scales 2) Humanistic Perspective ( Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers) Abraham People basically good BUT: People need genuineness, acceptance, empathy to be “normal” Genuineness-- need to be open, self-disclosing, not fake -- need Acceptance-- need unconditional positive regard / -- need unconditional love unconditional Empathy -- sharing feelings & reflecting meaning Central feature of personality is our self-concept can be (+) or (-) ! can 3) Social-Cognitive Perspective (Albert Bandura) Personality shaped by external events & how we perceive them Also conditioning and modeling “Bobo Doll” Experiment *Basic Concept: Self-efficacy—belief in your own ability (efficacy = effectiveness) Also, Locus of Control 2 Kinds: External--perceive that chance or outside forces (“luck”) determine your fate Internal --believe you control your own destiny *do better in school, more Internal *do independent, cope better, less depressed independent, 4) Psychoanalytic Perspective (Sigmund Freud) Sigmund “The mind is like an iceberg” Personality is due to conflicts between aggressive, pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints against them Mind consists of 3 entities: 1. Id--has energy to satisfy basic survival instincts like reproduction & aggression reproduction Operates on Pleasure Principle--seeks immediate gratification *newborns governed by the Id *newborns 2. Ego--develops in childhood (2-3 years) 2. Ego--develops operates on Reality Principle--keeps Id in check to conform with reality Personality “executive” 3. Superego--develops around age 4-5 voice of reason / our “conscience” tells us how we “ought” to behave Id = “Devil” Superego = “Angel” Ego = keeps peace between the two Freud’s Theory of Personality Development 5 Psychosexual Stages of Development: *As a child develops, Id focuses on several “pleasure-sensitive” areas 1) Oral Stage (0-18 mos) Derive sensual pleasure from the mouth--sucking, biting, chewing, etc. 2) Anal Stage (18 mos. - 3 yrs) Pleasure comes from bowel & bladder control Potty training 3) Phallic Stage (3 – 6 years) Pleasure zone shifts to genitals Oedipal/ Electra Complexes Identification 4) Latency Stage (6 - puberty) Sexuality dormant, play with same-sexed friends 5) Genital Stage (puberty to adulthood) Develop sexual feelings toward others **Problem behavior occurs due to unresolved conflicts during any or all of the stages Develop Fixations -- --conflicts that keep people seeking Develop --conflicts pleasure in a stage pleasure Ex. Oral Fixation Anal Retentive / Anal Expulsive Defense Mechanisms--Ego tries to protect itself under stress by reducing anxiety Defense 1. Repression--put anxiety producing things out of awareness 2. Regression-- go back to earlier stage of development for comfort 3. Reaction Formation--make unacceptable responses their opposite 4. Projection--attribute own bad feelings to others Projection--attribute – Ex: thief sees everyone as a thief 5. Rationalization--make up explanations to hide real reasons for actions 6. Displacement--puts bad impulses from the target to something more acceptable like doll, dog, loved one--not authority figure who could punish acceptable 7. Sublimation--put unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable behavior Assessing the Unconscious Use Projective tests --try to see through surface to reveal hidden conflicts and impulses present ambiguous picture and have people interpret it will project inner feelings onto picture Ex: Rorshach inkblot test TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course PSY 111 taught by Professor Cooper during the Fall '08 term at Miami University.

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