Chapter 2 Notes

Chapter 2 Notes - Chapter 2Research Methodology Critical...

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Chapter 2—Research Methodology Critical Thinking--The ability to question and evaluate information on the basis of well-supported evidence Use the scientific method to aid critical thinking Allows us to gather evidence to prove claims! 6 steps to the scientific method: 1) Form an hypothesis Hypothesis -- Specific, testable idea An “educated guess” 2) conduct a literature review See if your idea has been tested & what other people found! 3) Design a study Using one of the research methods 4) Conduct the study Also called “collecting data” 5) Analyze the data Use Statistics (described at the end of the chapter) 6) Report results Write a paper--describe why you conducted your study, how you conducted your study, what you found, and what it means! Theory -- set of PROVEN hypotheses that together explain or predict some phenomenon Ex: Theory of Evolution Hyp: Man evolved from lower org. Test: prehistoric evidence of man? Hyp: Org. change to fit environment Test: do char. change in diff. enviorn? Theories are based on proven research, but also generate other hypotheses *If new evidence doesn’t support a theory, the theory can be revised or abandoned 4 Main Goals of Science: 1) description -- describe some phenomenon 2) prediction -- of how phenomenon might affect other things 3) control -- control variables to examine phenomenon Achieve the 4 goals through 6 major research methods *Each method approaches the steps of scientific method & goals differently. Ex: experimental method only way to determine cause & effect of behavior, but observation lets us see how people actually behave in their natural environment
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5 Common Research Methods: 1) Case Study Intensive exam of a particular individual or group Pros-- Good for describing new or rare phenomena Cons— a) very labor & time intensive b) Can’t GENERALIZE -- apply findings to the general population. 2)
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course PSY 111 taught by Professor Cooper during the Fall '08 term at Miami University.

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Chapter 2 Notes - Chapter 2Research Methodology Critical...

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