Chapter 5 Notes

Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception...

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Chapter 5 -- Sensation and Perception Sensation Senses--Translate information from environment into something the brain can understand (neural activity) Senses gather information by detecting energy--sound, light, heat, pressure Sensation requires 2 things: 1) Way of acquiring energy (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin) 2) Transduction --Process of converting energy into neural activity Transduction takes place at Receptors --cells specialized to detect certain energy forms--especially changes in energy, Converting energy Adaptation --when a receptor stops responding to the same stimulus Coding-converting environmental stimuli into pattern of neural activity Receptors transduce energy & code it into a pattern of neural activity 2 Kinds of Coding: 1) Temporal Code – timing, you perceive a visual stimulus as brighter or dimmer Neurons fire faster or slower depending on the intensity of the stimulus 2) Spatial Code, perceive something as a visual stimulus where in the brain the neuron fires *Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies: Stimulation of a sense nerve causes a sensation no matter how the stimulation occurs. So, different parts of our brain have neurons for different senses! Vision Light is energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation Our eye can only detect a wavelength of approx. 400-800 nm Light gets transduced into neural activity in the eye at the Photoreceptors Parts of the eye: Cornea -- curved, transparent, protective covering Pupil --opening in eye just behind cornea Iris -- colored part -- adjusts the amount of light entering eye. A muscle, it moves to adjust the amount of light entering the pupil Lens -- behind pupil -- curved to bend light rays and focus the image Accommodation -- ability to change the shape of the lens Near/Far-sightedness--caused by light being focused either in front of or behind the retina Retina -- back of the eye --where the image gets focused Retina contains Photoreceptors Photoreceptors transduce light energy!
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Review: Path of light through the eye: Cornea--->Pupil--->Lens---> Retina Photoreceptors contain photopigments --chemicals that break apart when light hits them 2 types of photoreceptors: 1) Rods -- night vision, located all over the retina Use rhodopsin photopigment
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Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception...

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