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Unformatted text preview: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 2009 1 Between Ethnic-Nationalism, Civic-Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism: Discourses on the Identity of the EU and the Debates on Turkey's Accession Sara Kahn-Nisser * Abstract This paper seeks to contribute to our understanding of the issue of collective identity in the EU, and its relation to the process of enlargement. Through an analysis of the European Parliament's (EP) debates on the accession of Turkey, I will show that the issue of European collective identity is essential for understanding the EP's position towards Turkey. I will explicate the view on inclusion and diversity in the EU, implicit in speeches made in the EP. My analysis will show that there is a complex, two-way relation between the members of the European parliament's (MEP) views on inclusion and diversity in the EU, and their position towards Turkey. Another conclusion has to do with the relation between state nationalism and European integration. My findings suggest that the EP is quite indifferent towards state-national identities and cultures, and does not see them as assets to be preserved. Introduction The study of EU-Turkey relations and the study of collective identity in the EU have hitherto progressed on separate parallel paths. Students of collective identity in the EU seem to agree that enlargement is in some way relevant to the understanding the EU's identity, and students of EU-Turkey relations assume that the process of Turkey's accession is in some way related to issues of identity in the EU, but this relation has not been explored sufficiently (see the following literature review). This paper hopes to constitute a step towards explicating the relation between the EU's collective identity and enlargement. It is a modest first step, focusing on the case of Turkey and on the specific issues of inclusion and diversity. However the analysis will suggest that there is a close, two-way relation between enlargement and identity and represents a call for Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 2009 2 further studies of other enlargements, and other aspects of the EU's collective identity in the context of enlargement. This would contribute not only to our understanding of European integration, but also to the more general context of the relation between a community's identity and its "others". EU-Turkey Relations I would like to open with a concise overview of EU-Turkey relations and the existing literature on it. There are fine historical reviews of EU-Turkey relations already available 1 , one of the most detailed of which is Ozgul Erdemli's 2 . For the present purpose a brief mentioning of the main turning-points will suffice. On September 11 th 1959 Turkey was accepted as an associate member in the ECSC. In January 1982, in reaction to the coup-d'tat the European communities suspended all relations with Turkey. Gradual re-democratization in the European communities suspended all relations with Turkey....
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