f_0019743_16819

f_0019743_16819 - International Politics and the Media: The...

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Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 8, No. 3, Fall 2009 42 International Politics and the Media: The Case of the Press/Media in the War on Terror Ahmet Öztürk* Abstract The fundamental changes and deterioration in state-news media relations since 9/11, particularly in the relations between the United States, US’ allies in the war on terror and international news networks in the post-9/11 world, have necessitated a reassessment of existing theoretical framework that describes the state-media relations. This paper, after providing a brief summary of theoretical framework for the press-state relations within a historical context, analyses the impact of the post-September 11 events on the freedom of expression and press freedom to introduce the changing and deteriorating environment for the press-state relations since then. The paper concludes that the power politics applied widely by states in domestically and internationally in the post-9/11 world have caused serious violations of the freedom of expression in general, these therefore resulted setbacks and deteriorations in press freedom in particular. The paper also concludes that this new state of affairs consequently necessitates new theories and approaches to explain the post-9/11 state-media relations.
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Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 8, No. 3, Fall 2009 43 Keywords: September 11, International Politics, War on Terror, Civil Liberties, State-Press Relations, Press-Media Theories Introductıon It took centuries for democratic societies to achieve the current level of civil rights and freedoms, and to establish a free and open society based on them. The press, 1 academia and the whole society needed these rights to discover and achieve the truth. However, throughout the course of the development of democratic societies there have been different approaches towards liberties in general and towards press freedom in particular. Governments and political society have often (if not always) been sceptical towards a liberal and free press, and stemming from this fact there have been various press theories or media systems explaining the press’ relationship with the governments . In 1956 Siebert, Peterson, and Schramm presented the “Four Theories of the Press” as the first comprehensive attempt to define the mass media-political society relations within a theoretical frame. 2 They set up four normative theories, the authoritarian, the libertarian, the Soviet, and the social responsibility theories, with which they defined the relationship between the press and domestic political environment. Siebert's four theories, which have been in place for decades to explain state-press relations, are still somehow viable and convincing in mass media studies in order to describe how different media systems operate in the world, despite increasing criticisms. 3
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f_0019743_16819 - International Politics and the Media: The...

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