f_0020896_17370

f_0020896_17370 - ALTERNATIVES: Turkish Journal of...

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ALTERNATIVES: Turkish Journal of International Relations Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall 2010, pp. 8-25 Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society M. Nazrul Islam* and Muhammad Azam** Abstract The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regarding democracy promotion in the Gulf region. Key words: civil society, democratic values and norms, democratization, human rights, women empowerment Introduction As the Bush Administration laid an increased emphasis on democracy promotion in the Arab world, attention of the American nongovernmental sector was also drawn to the goal of promoting democracy in the region. Nongovernmental U.S. organizations worked * PhD Fellow/Lecturer (Visiting), Department of Politics and International Relations, Faculty of Social Sciences, International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI), Islamabad, PAKISTAN, Cell: +92 345 5257271, Office: +92 51 9257961, azam.phdir03@iiu.edu.pk . Ex-chairman of Department of Political Science, University of Dhaka. Formerly a Senior Teaching Fellow at the Griffith University, and Fulbright Scholar. PhD from Griffith University, Australia. Authored five books, including Consolidating Asian Democracy, and over 20 articles. ** PhD, Department of Politics and International Relations, Faculty of Social Sciences, International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI), Islamabad, PAKISTAN. Azam submitted his PhD Dissertation “Democratization of the Gulf Countries: Role of the United States from 2000 to 2008” in June 2010, Department of Politics and International Relations, IIUI. Member visiting faculty at the same Department. He has three journal articles and a book chapter to his credit.
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Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society 9 Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall 2010 shoulder to shoulder with the governmental organizations. It does not mean that the American NGOs have not been engaged in democracy promotion in the Arab world before 2000 when George W. Bush took charge of the presidential office. But the point is that there was a mega change in the frequency as well as volume of activities directed by the American civil society to the cause of democracy in the region. Events of 9/11 not only had caused terrible shocks to the Bush Administration but also to the American people. Civil society and businesses in the United States could not stay indifferent to the miseries of those who suffered from the 9/11 events. A strong sense of insecurity prevailed among the Americans. This sense of insecurity mobilized the
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f_0020896_17370 - ALTERNATIVES: Turkish Journal of...

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