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Unformatted text preview: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 5, No.1&2, Spring & Summer 2006 20 Transit and Receiving Countries: Refugee Protection Policies in Belgium, Slovenia, Greece, and Turkey ule Tokta ,* Aspasia Papadopoulou,** Mila Paspalanova,*** and Natalija Vrecer**** The issue of refugees and asylum seekers has been an important aspect of international migration both for the academic researchers on the field as well as for the policy makers at national and international levels. After the crisis in the management of refugees during WWII, international bodies, primarily United Nations, have allocated significant proportions of its attention plus its resources to build up and develop norms of refugee protection as part of the international system of governance. The primary goal of these collective attempts was to lay down the basics for refugee protection in cases of political turmoil, civil or national wars and ethnic conflicts. These attempts were not only the result of the dramatic events experienced in WII but also accompanied the development of human rights regime at the global level since the late years of the 1940s. It is in this context that the Convention Related to the Status of Refugees had been drafted and was released on 28 July 1951. Additional international document in the field is the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees known as the New York Protocol. The standard definition of a refugee has been provided by the Convention Article 1(2) which specifies that: Article 1(2). The term refugee should apply to any person, who as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 5, No.1&2, Spring & Summer 2006 21 and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it. Application for asylum means a request whereby an alien seeks protection from a European Union member state under the Geneva Convention by claiming refugee status. An applicant for asylum or asylum seeker means an alien who has made an application for asylum upon which a final decision has not yet been taken. In accordance with these definitions, each state that has ratified the Convention guarantees the provision of protection to people who qualify for refugee status. Each country however, has its own regulations for assessing asylum applications, the possibility to appeal a decision of deportation, the legal conditions for employment, the family reunification process, etc. It has to be noted that the major root of the employment, the family reunification process, etc....
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