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Unformatted text preview: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 5, No.4, Winter 2006 1 Islamic Fundamentalism and the Rise of the Fourth International Revolution Jason Cooley* Introduction In the past, many Muslims divided the world into two parts, which were Dar Al-Harb and Dar-Al Islam. The former pertained to places that did not follow Islam, whereas, the latter was a label for the places that did. Supposedly, Islam also had to spread to these other areas where it was not present. Coincidentally, certain followers of this faith, known as Islamic fundamentalists, still stick by this idea today. These individuals have demonstrated time and time again that they are willing to resort to desperate measures in order to spread Islam. Perhaps, the best illustration of this is the hijackings on September 11, 2001. Not only has this fundamentalist initiative caused unfortunate terrorist attacks like the one from above, but more broadly it seems to have led to another international revolution. To demonstrate this point, this paper will proceed through two steps. First, an analysis of a chapter in Martin Wights Power Politics will be conducted because Wight perfectly describes the developments, which begin to transpire if and when a revolution is taking place. Second, this paper will examine the most recent actions of pertinent international actors ranging from the Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 5, No.4, Winter 2006 2 aforementioned fundamentalists to the United States. This behavior is similar to these very same developments that Wight described several years ago. Wight on International Revolutions This section attempts to define the term international revolution and describe the developments that transpire when one is in progress. The most important of these developments are the emergence of a particular revolution in a specific country that serves as a model for potential revolutionaries abroad and the formation of a counter-revolution by politicians from other states. These two events should be accompanied by changes in loyalties, treason, fear of treason, the use of coercion and propaganda in order to spread particular doctrines, the prevalence of tension between certain nations, the weakening of international institutions, civil wars, imperialism, and the eventual return of realpolitik as the guiding force for international leaders. In the rest of this section, I delve into these issues one-by-one. Wight thought of an international revolution as an organized attempt to transform international society (1978, p.84). If an attempt is going to be successful, the governmental structures in an assortment of nations will need to be altered. Each of the three international revolutions mentioned in Power Politics produced this type of drastic change. After the first movement, which was the Reformation, a variety of states inside of Europe were no longer dominated by monarchies that were devout supporters of Catholicism. dominated by monarchies that were devout supporters of Catholicism....
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